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עמוד בית
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February 2015
Attila Kovacs MD PhD, Adelina G. Siminischi MD, Beáta Baksay MD, Andras Gall MD, Maria Takacs MD and Zoltan Szekanecz MD PhD
January 2011
G.M. Hirschfield and M.E. Gershwin

Primary biliary cirrhosis is considered a model autoimmune disease because of the similarities between patients, their relative homogeneous presentation and natural history, and the presence of the signature autoantibody, the anti-mitochondrial antibodies. PBC[1] also illustrates the potential role of genetic and environmental influence and is unique in having several well-defined animal models that recapitulate distinct features of the disease. The pathogenesis of the disease includes genetic predisposition, the production of both innate and adaptive immune responses, and cholangiocyte-specific biology that addresses the specificity of disease. In this review we highlight these features of PBC in comparison to other autoimmune diseases.






[1] PBC = primary biliary cirrhosis


February 2009
N. Agmon-Levin, B. Porat Katz and Y. Shoenfeld

Primary biliary cirrhosis is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by humoral and cellular response directed at mitochondrial autoantigens, mainly the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The etiology of PBC[1], like most polygenic autoimmune diseases, belongs to the "complex" category, including genetic elements and environmental factors. Many environmental factors, such as xenobiotics, smoking, hormonal therapy, toxins, oxidative stress and recurrent urinary tract infections, are associated with PBC. Infectious agents can trigger autoimmunity via several mechanisms and are associated with various autoimmune diseases. A relationship between PBC and several infectious agents, and a possible role for Escherichia coli in the pathogenesis of PBC has been suggested. The identification of a culprit agent that induces or exacerbates PBC might have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This review evaluates the evidence for an infectious agent role in the pathogenesis of PBC.






[1] PBC = primary biliary cirrhosis


January 2008
Y. Shoenfeld, M. Blank, M. Abu-Shakra, H. Amital, O. Barzilai, Y. Berkun, N. Bizzaro, B. Gilburd, G. Zandman-Goddard, U. Katz, I. Krause, P. Langevitz, I.R. Mackay, H. Orbach, M. Ram, Y. Sherer, E. Toubi and M.E. Gershwin
November 2005
J. Delgado, A.D. Sperber, V. Novack, B. Delgado, L. Edelman, N. Gaspar, P. Krugliak, S. Odes, A.B. Jotkowitz, M. Faszczyk and A. Fich
 Background: The epidemiology of primary biliary cirrhosis has changed significantly over the last decade, with a trend towards increasing prevalence in many places around the world.

Objectives: To determine the overall prevalence of PBC[1] in southern Israel and the specific rates for different immigrant groups between January 1993 and October 2004.

Methods: Multiple case-finding methods were used to identify all cases of PBC in the study region. Age-adjusted prevalence rates were compared among the different immigrant groups.

Results: A total of 47 cases of PBC were identified with an overall prevalence of 55 cases per million. All patients were women, and all except for a Bedouin Arab were Jewish. Foreign-born patients comprised 70% of our PBC cohort even though they represent only 45.4% of the regional population. This predominance of immigrants did not change when the rates were adjusted for age (P < 0.001). The prevalence rates were 40, 177, and 58 cases per million for those born in Israel, North Africa or Asia, and Eastern Europe, respectively. The age-specific prevalence rate for women older than 40 years varied from 135 cases per million among those born in Israel to 450 among immigrants from Eastern Europe and the former USSR to 700 cases per million among immigrants from North Africa and Asia.

Conclusions: The prevalence of PBC in southern Israel is similar to that reported from some European countries. The rate is much higher among Jews than Arabs and among immigrants to Israel compared to native Israelis.


 



[1] PBC = primary biliary cirrhosis


November 2003
December 2002
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