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עמוד בית
Wed, 29.05.24

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November 2023
Andrei Braester MD, Celia Suriu MD, Luiza Akria MD, Moran Zarfati MD, Najib Dally, Masad Barhoum MD

Cognitive impairment due to different types of anemia is well-known. We reviewed the links between different types of anemia and the mechanism of cognition impairment as well as the direct involvement of micronutrients such as iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and copper on cognitive function. Anemia can lead to cognitive impairment, yet the current health policy usually requires patient involvement in the treatment decision-making. Therefore, can an anemic patient be a partner to shared decision-making concerning the recommended treatment?

August 2022
Nir Tsur MD, Omri Frig BSc, Orna Steinberg-Shemer MD, Hannah Tamary MD, Noga Kurman MD, Aviram Mizrachi MD, and Aron Popovtzer MD

Background: Recent studies show a high risk of developing malignancy in patients with Fanconi anemia. The most common solid tumor in this condition is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and there is often uncertainty and about disease behavior as well as chemotherapy and radiation response.

Objectives: To describe and characterize HNSCC among Fanconi anemia patients on the Israeli Fanconi Registry

Methods: Our study population included patients in Israel's inherited bone marrow failure registry who were diagnosed with Fanconi anemia between1980 and 2016. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient charts.

Results: From the collected data, HNSCC was confirmed in 6/111 (5.4%) Fanconi anemia patients; 1 (17%) had classic HNSCC risk factors of tobacco abuse and 4 (56%) had undergone primary surgery. The 3 (50%) receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy had mild side effects, while half developed metachronous primary malignancy, and all developed > 2 primary malignancies. The overall median survival of the patients in our study was 14 (0.5–57) months.

Conclusions: Fanconi anemia patients have a very high risk of developing HNSCC. Proactive screening for malignancies is needed for the head and neck regions. We also found that chemoradiotherapy can be used safely in high-stage cancers.

Anton Bermont MD, Daniel L Cohen MD, Vered Richter MD, Efrat Broide MD, and Haim Shirin MD

Background: One of the main causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is chronic gastrointestinal blood loss. The use of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) after negative bidirectional endoscopy in patients with IDA is controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of VCE in the management and long-term outcomes of IDA patients.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed on all patients with IDA undergoing VCE over a 5-year period. We compared those with positive findings on VCE to those with normal findings. All participants previously underwent a negative bidirectional endoscopy

Results: We performed 199 VCE examinations; median follow-up time was 4 years (IQR 2–5). Positive findings were identified in 66 patients (diagnostic yield 33.2%). Double balloon enteroscopy or push enteroscopy was performed in eight patients (18.6%); only one was therapeutic. The main therapy in both groups was iron supplementation. There were no significant differences in iron treatment before and after VCE in each group and between groups. Anemia improved in both groups. There was no difference in the level of hemoglobin change between the groups during each year of follow-up compared to the baseline level prior to VCE. Anemia resolved in 15 patients (35%) in the positive VCE group and in 19 (45%) in the negative VCE group (P = 0.33).

Conclusions: Positive findings on VCE led to subsequent endoscopic interventions only in a small percentage of patients with IDA. Anemia improved and resolved equally whether or not there were VCE findings. The main intervention that appears to help IDA is iron supplementation.

October 2021
Joseph Gardyn MD, Noa Chapal PhD, and Sharon Floru MD PhD

Background: Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread problem. Although oral and intravenous therapy are available, iron malabsorption is a distinct possibility.

Objectives: To evaluate the applicability of the oral iron absorption test (OIAT) as a simple and effective means of determining the degree of oral iron absorption.

Methods: The study comprised 81 patients diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia who were referred to a hematology outpatient clinic. Participants were given two ferrous sulphate tablets. Iron levels in the blood were evaluated at intervals from 30 to 180 minutes after iron administration.

Results: We divided patients into three distinct groups. The first group consisted of patients with little iron absorption with a maximum iron increment (Cmax) in the blood of 0–49 ug/dl. The second group had a moderate maximum absorption of 50–100 ug/dl, while a third group had considerable absorption of with maximum iron increase of over 100 ug/dl.

Conclusions: The oral iron absorption test, although not clearly standardized, is easy to conduct in any outpatient clinic. This test can readily and clearly determine absorption or nonabsorption of iron. This test can have major implications on the need of oral or intravenous iron therapy and can also determine the need for further gastrointestinal evaluation of the small intestine, where iron absorption takes place and the success of therapy on subsequent iron absorption

June 2019
October 2018
Julie Vaynshtein MD, Ohad Guetta MD, Ilya Replyansky MD, Alexander Vakhrushev MD, David Czeiger MD PHD, Amnon Ovnat MD and Gilbert Sebbag MD MPH
July 2018
Yael Einbinder MD, Timna Agur MD, Kirill Davidov, Tali Zitman-Gal PhD, Eliezer Golan MD and Sydney Benchetrit MD

Background: Anemia management strategies among chronic hemodialysis patients with high ferritin levels remains challenging for nephrologists.

Objectives: To compare anemia management in stable hemodialysis patients with high (≥ 500 ng/ml) vs. low (< 500 ng/ml) ferritin levels

Methods: In a single center, record review, cohort study of stable hemodialysis patients who were followed for 24 months, an anemia management policy was amended to discontinue intravenous (IV) iron therapy for stable hemodialysis patients with hemoglobin > 10 g/dl and ferritin ≥ 500 ng/ml. Erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents (ESA), IV iron doses, and laboratory parameters were compared among patients with high vs. low baseline ferritin levels before and after IV iron cessation.

Results: Among 87 patients, 73.6% had baseline ferritin ≥ 500 ng/ml. Weekly ESA dose was greater among patients with high vs. low ferritin (6788.8 ± 4727.8 IU/week vs. 3305.0 ± 2953.9 IU/week, P = 0.001); whereas, cumulative and monthly IV iron doses were significantly lower (1628.2 ± 1491.1 mg vs. 2557.4 ± 1398.9 mg, P = 0.011, and 82.9 ± 85 vs. 140.7 ± 63.9 mg, P = 0.004). Among patients with high ferritin, IV iron was discontinued for more than 3 months in 41 patients (64%) and completely avoided in 6 (9.5%).ESA dose and hemoglobin levels did not change significantly during this period.

Conclusions: Iron cessation in chronic hemodialysis patients with high ferritin levels did not affect hemoglobin level or ESA dose and can be considered as a safe policy for attenuating the risk of chronic iron overload.

August 2015
Yaron Arbel MD, Assi Milwidsky MD, Ariel Finkelstein MD, Amir Halkin MD, Miri Revivo MHA, Shlomo Berliner MD PhD, Martin Ellis MD, Itzhak Herz MD, Gad Keren MD and Shmuel Banai MD

Background: Anemia confers an adverse prognosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Several mechanisms have been implicated in the etiology of anemia in this setting, including inflammation, blood loss, and the presence of comorbidities such as renal failure.

Objectives: To evaluate the adequacy of bone marrow response as potentially reflected by elevation in blood and reticulocyte counts.

Methods: Consecutive men with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous intervention within 6 hours of symptom onset and who presented to our catheterization laboratory during a 36 month period were included in the study. The cohort was divided into quartiles according to hemoglobin concentration, and differences in clinical and laboratory characteristics between the groups were evaluated.

Results: A total of 258 men with STEMI were recruited, 22% of whom suffered from anemia according to the World Health Organization classification (hemoglobin < 13 g/dl). Men in the lowest quartile of hemoglobin concentration presented with significantly lower white blood cell and platelet counts (9.6 ± 2.9 vs. 12.6 ± 3.6 x103/µl, P < 0.001) and (231 ± 79 vs. 263 ± 8 x103/µl, P < 0.01), respectively, despite higher inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) compared with patients in the upper hemoglobin concentration quartile. Reticulocyte production index was not significantly higher in anemic patients with a value of 1.8, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6 in the ascending hemoglobin quartiles, respectively (P = 0.292). 

Conclusions: Anemic men with STEMI have relatively lower leukocyte and platelet counts as well as a reduced reticulocyte count despite higher inflammatory biomarkers. These findings might suggest inadequate bone marrow response. 

 

July 2015
July 2014
Natalya Bilenko MD PhD MPH, Drora Fraser PhD, Hillel Vardy BA and Ilana Belmaker MD MPH
Background: A high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia persists in Bedouin Arab and Jewish pediatric populations in southern Israel.

Objectives: To compare the effect of daily use of multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS), "Sprinkles," a powdered formulation of iron, vitamins A and C, folic acid and zinc, with liquid iron and vitamins A and D on iron deficiency at 12 months of age.

Methods: The 621 eligible Bedouin and Jewish infants in the study were assigned to the MMS and control arms and received their supplementations from age 6 to 12 months. We examined the change in hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume, red blood cell distribution, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. In addition, we used the high Iron Deficiency Index (IDI) if two or more of the above six parameters showed abnormal levels. 

Results: Rates of anemia decreased significantly over the 6 month period, from 58.8% to 40.6% among Bedouin infants (P = 0.037) and from 40.6 to 15.8% among Jewish infants (P = 0.017). In Bedouin infants the prevalence of high IDI decreased significantly from 79.2% to 67.4% (P = 0.010) in the MMS group, but there was no change in the controls. Among Jewish infants, the high IDI prevalence decreased from 67% to 55.6% with no statistically significant difference in the two study arms. In the multivariate analysis in Bedouin infants MMS use was associated with a reduced risk of 67% in high IDI at age 12 months as compared to controls (P = 0.001). Fewer side effects in the intervention groups in both ethnic populations were reported.

Conclusions: MMS fortification of home food can be recommended as an effective and safe method for preventing iron deficiency anemia at 12 months of age. 
July 2013
H.S. Oster, M. Benderly, M. Hoffman, E. Cohen, A. Shotan and M. Mittelman
 Background: Anemia is common in heart failure (HF), but there is controversy regarding its contribution to morbidity and mortality.

Objective: To examine the association of mild and severe anemia with acute HF severity and mortality.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected for patients admitted to all departments of medicine and cardiology throughout the country during 2 months in 2003 as part of the Heart Failure Survey in Israel. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin (Hb) < 12 g/dl for women and < 13 g/dl for men; Hb < 10 g/dl was considered as severe anemia. Mortality data were obtained from the Israel population registry. Median follow-up was 33.6 months.

Results: Of 4102 HF patients, 2332 had acute HF and available hemoglobin data. Anemia was common (55%) and correlated with worse baseline HF. Most signs and symptoms of acute HF were similar among all groups, but mortality was greater in anemic patients. Mortality rates at 6 months were 14.9%, 23.7% and 26.3% for patients with no anemia, mild anemia, and severe anemia, respectively (P < 0.0001), and 22.2%, 33.6% and 39.9% at one year, respectively (P < 0.0001). Compared to patients without anemia, multivariable adjusted hazard ratio was 1.35 for mild anemia and 1.50 for severe anemia (confidence interval 1.20–1.52 and 1.27–1.77 respectively).

Conclusions: Anemia is common in patients with acute HF and is associated with increased mortality correlated with the degree of anemia.

N. Roguin Maor
 Background: Smoking is a serious health issue worldwide. Smoking trends among physicians predict similar trends in the general population. Little is known about current smoking rates among physicians.

Objectives: To investigate current smoking trends among Israeli physicians.

Methods: All practicing physicians at a tertiary university-affiliated medical center in central Israel were invited to complete a Web-based questionnaire on smoking habits and smoking-related issues via the institutional email. Findings were compared to those in the general population and between subgroups.

Results: Of the 90 responders (53 male, 88 Jewish), 54 (60%) had never smoked, 21 (23.3%) were past smokers, and 15 (16.7%) were current smokers. The rate of current smokers was lower than in the general population. The proportion of current smokers was higher among residents than attending physicians and among physicians in surgical compared to medical specialties. Past smokers accounted for 17.9% of the residents (average age at quitting 26.2 years) and 28.1% of the attending physicians (average age at quitting 33.0 years). Non-smokers more frequently supported harsh anti-smoking legislation.

Conclusions: The rate of smoking is lower in physicians than in the general population but has not changed over the last 15 years. Anti-smoking programs should particularly target physicians in surgical specialties. 

August 2012
A. Ballin, Y. Senecky, U. Rubinstein, E. Schaefer, R. Peri, S. Amsel, M. Vol, Y. Amit and M. Boaz

Background: The pathogenesis of anemia associated with acute infection in children has not been well delineated.

Objectives: To characterize this type of anemia in children with acute infection, mainly in relation to iron status.

Methods: These two cross-sectional studies compared the prevalence and severity of anemia between outpatient febrile children and age-matched non-febrile controls.

Results: In part 1 of the study, children with acute infection (n=58) had a significant decrease in hemoglobin levels compared with 54 non-febrile controls. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) did not change this association. Moreover, there was no significant difference in MCV, mean cell hemoglobin or red cell distribution width values between the two groups. Regarding part 2, of the 6534 blood counts obtained in community clinics, 229 were defined as “bacterial infection.” Chart survey confirmed this diagnosis. White blood cell level was significantly inversely associated with hemoglobin level (r = -0.36, P < 0.0001). Anemia was significantly more prevalent among children with bacterial infection compared to those without: 21.4% vs. 14.1% (P = 0.002). Mean values of iron status parameters were all within normal limits.

Conclusions: Acute illness is associated with anemia. The pathogenesis of this anemia does not appear to be associated with disruption of iron metabolism.

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