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עמוד בית
Fri, 24.05.24

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January 2023
Ron Skorochod B MED Sc, Eli Ben-Chetrit MD, David Raveh MD, Bashar Fteiha MD, Yehonatan Turner MD, Yitzhak Skorochod MD

Acute cholecystitis is a common surgical diagnosis. If not addressed properly, it can potentially lead to sepsis, perforation of the gallbladder, and even death.

The most frequent pathogens isolated from bile cultures of patients with cholecystitis are anaerobes and Enterbacterales such as E. coli, Klebsiella species, and Streptococcus species [1].

Streptococcus gordonii belongs to the Viridians streptococci group of oral bacteria and is commonly associated with dental caries. S. gordonii has been previously reported as the causative pathogen in both endocarditis and spondylodiskitis [2]. However, it has rarely been associated with biliary infections. In this report, we presented a patient diagnosed with cholecystitis associated with S. gordonii infection.

May 2022
Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Oded Zmora MD, Hilli Nativ MD, Itamar Ashkenazi MD, Jonathan Hammerschlag MD, and Igor Jeroukhimov MD

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on healthcare systems worldwide. The fear of seeking medical attention to avoid the possibility of being infected may have altered the course of some diseases.

Objectives: To describe our experience with the management of patients with acute cholecystitis during the pandemic at our medical center.

Methods: We compared patients treated for acute cholecystitis between 1 March and 31 August 2020 (Group I) to patients admitted with the same diagnosis during the same months in 2019 (Group II). We evaluated demographics, presenting symptoms, laboratory and imaging findings at presentation, the disease's clinical course, management, and outcome.

Results: Group I consisted of 101 patients and group II included 94 patients. No differences were noted for age (66 years, IQR 48–78 vs. 66 years, IQR 47–76; P = 0.50) and sex (57.4% vs. 51.1% females; P = 0.39) between the two groups. The delay between symptom onset and hospital admission was longer for Group I patients (3 days, IQR 2–7 vs. 2 days, IQR 1–3; P = 0.002). Moderate to severe disease was more commonly encountered in Group I (59.4% vs. 37.2%, P = 0.003). Group I patients more often failed conservative management (36% vs. 6%, P = 0.001) and had a higher conversion rate to open surgery (15.4% vs. 0%, P = 0.025).

Conclusions: Patients presenting with acute cholecystitis during the COVID-19 pandemic more often presented late to the emergency department and more showed adverse outcomes

April 2022
Mohamed Abou Arisheh MD, Paul Froom MD, and Zvi Shimoni MD

Background: It is important to predict acute cholecystitis (AC) before a laparoscopic cholecystectomy because inflammation of the gallbladder predicts the need for open conversion and subsequent morbidity after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Objectives: To create an index based on clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound criteria on admission that will predict AC on pathological examination in patients presenting acutely.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive cases of emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomies conducted by three experienced surgeons between 1 October 2014 and 31 January 2018. Independent variables were age, sex, presenting symptoms, admission laboratory tests, and ultrasound findings. The outcome variable was AC on histological examination. An index was created from all variables that added significantly to the logistic regression analysis.

Results: Eight variables that contributed significantly to the model, included age, male sex, vomiting on admission, an increased proportion of neutrophils, a normal aspartate aminotransferase test, a normal serum amylase test result, a thick gall bladder wall, and pericholecystic fluid. An index of ≤ 2 to ≥ 8 created from those variables had a graded risk for AC of 1.8% to 92.0% with a c-statistic of 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.81–0.91). Operating time and bleeding increased in those with a higher index.

Conclusions: An index including age, sex, symptoms, and selected laboratory results as well as ultrasound characteristics had an excellent graded risk in the prediction of histological AC that was associated with operating time and an increased risk of bleeding during the operation.

September 2020
Chaya Shwaartz MD, Ron Pery MD, Mordechay Cordoba MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Danny Rosin MD

Background: The safe completion of cholecystectomy is dependent on proper identification and secure closure of the cystic duct. Effecting this closure poses a great challenge when inflammatory changes obscure the anatomy. Subtotal cholecystectomy allows for near complete removal of the gallbladder and complete evacuation of the stones while avoiding dissection in the hazardous area.

Objectives: To describe experience with laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy.

Methods: Subtotal cholecystectomy was performed when the critical view of safety could not be achieved. Surgical technique was similar in all cases and included opening the Hartmann’s pouch, removing stones obstructing the gallbladder outlet, and identifying the opening of the cystic duct, as well as circumferential transection of the gallbladder neck, closure of the gallbladder stump, and excision of the gallbladder fundus. Data retrieved from patient charts included demographics, pre-operative history, operative and postoperative course, and late complications. No bile duct injuries were observed in this series.

Results: A total of 53 patients underwent laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (2010–2018). Ten patients were operated during the acute course of the disease and 43 electively. Acute cholecystitis was the leading cause for gallbladder removal. Cholecystostomy tube was placed in 18 patients during acute hospitalization. The gallbladder remnant was closed and a drain was placed in most patients. Of the 53 patients, 42 had an uneventful postoperative course.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy is an effective surgical technique to avoid bile duct injury when the cystic duct cannot safely be identified. Subtotal cholecystectomy has acceptable morbidity and obviates the need for conversion in these difficult cases.

October 2018
Nasser Sakran MD, Doron Kopelman MD, Ron Dar MD, Nael Abaya MD, Shams-Eldin Mokary MD, Chovav Handler MD and Dan D. Hershko MD

Background: Recent studies have suggested that urgent cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment for acute cholecystitis. However, initial conservative treatment followed by delayed elective surgery is still common practice in many medical centers.

Objectives: To determine the effect of percutaneous cholecystostomy on surgical outcome in patients undergoing delayed elective cholecystectomy.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to our medical center with acute cholecystitis who were treated by conservative treatment followed by delayed cholecystectomy between 2004 and 2013. Logistic regression was calculated to assess the association of percutaneous cholecystostomy with patient characteristics, planned surgical procedure, and the clinical and surgical outcomes.

Results: We identified 370 patients. Of these, 134 patients (36%) underwent cholecystostomy during the conservative treatment period. Patients who underwent cholecystostomy were older and at higher risk for surgery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was offered to 92% of all patients, yet assignment to the open surgical approach was more common in the cholecystostomy group (16% vs. 3%). Cholecystostomy was associated with significantly higher conversion rates to open approach (26% vs. 13%) but was not associated with longer operative time, hemorrhage, surgical infections, or bile duct or organ injuries.

Conclusions: Treatment with cholecystostomy is associated with higher conversion rates but does not include other major operative-related complications or poorer clinical outcome.

December 2009
O. Barak, R. Elazary, L. Appelbaum, A. Rivkind and G. Almogy

Background: Current treatment options for acute calculous cholecystitis include either early cholecystectomy, or conservative treatment consisting of intravenous antibiotics and an interval cholecystectomy several weeks later. Percutaneous drainage is reserved for patients in whom conservative therapy failed or as a salvage procedure for high risk patients.

Objective: To identify clinical and radiographic factors leading to failure of conservative treatment.

Methods: We prospectively collected data on consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Parameters were compared between patients who were successfully treated conservatively and those who required percutaneous cholecystostomy. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors for failure of conservative treatment. 

Results: The study population comprised 103 patients with a median age of 60 who were treated for acute cholecystitis. Twenty-seven patients (26.2%) required PC[1]. On univariate analysis, age above 70 years, diabetes, elevated white blood cell count, tachycardia (> 100 beats/min) at admission, and a distended gallbladder (> 5 cm transverse diameter) were found to be significantly more common in the PC group (P < 0.001). WBC[2] was higher in the PC group throughout the initial 48 hours. On multivariate analysis, age above 70 (odds ratio 3.6), diabetes (OR[3] 9.4), tachycardia at admission (OR 5.6), and a distended gallbladder (OR 8.5) were predictors for cholecystostomy (P < 0.001). Age above 70 (OR 5.2) and WBC > 15,000 (OR 13.7) were predictors for failure of conservative treatment after 24 and 48 hours (P < 0.001). 

Conclusions: Age above 70, diabetes, and a distended gallbladder are predictors for failure of conservative treatment and such patients should be considered for early cholecystostomy. Persistently elevated WBC (> 15,000) suggests refractory disease and should play a central role in the clinical follow-up and decision-making process for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis.


[1] PC = percutaneous cholecystostomy

[2] WBC = white blood cells

[3] OR = odds ratio

March 2003
I. Hadas-Halpern, M. Patlas, M. Knizhnik, I. Zaghal and D. Fisher

Background: The mainstay of therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy, which has a mortality of 14–30% in high risk patients. An alternative approach in patients suffering from acute cholecystitis with contraindications to emergency surgery is percutaneous cholecystostomy.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous cholecystostomy as the initial treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

Methods: Eighty consecutive patients (42 men, 38 women) underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy over a 5 year period. Sixty-five patients suffered from acute calculous cholecystitis, 4 patients had acalculous cholecystitis, and 11 patients had sepsis of unknown origin.

Results: Sixty-eight patients improved after the percutaneous gallbladder drainage, 10 patients died from co-morbid disease and 2 patients died from biliary peritonitis. During a 1 year follow-up, 32 of the patients underwent interval cholecystectomy, 4 additional patients died from a co-morbid disease, 18 patients did not suffer from any gallbladder symptoms, and 14 were lost to follow-up.

Conclusions: Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an effective contribution to the treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

May 2002
Marius Berman, MD, Israel L. Nudelman, MD, Zeev Fuko, MD, Osnat Madhala, MD, Margalit Neuman-Levin, MD and Shlomo Lelcuk, MD

Background: The mortality rate for cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in the elderly is 10% in low risk patients and increases threefold in high risk patients. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy may serve as a rapid and relatively safe tool to relieve symptoms of sepsis and decrease gallbladder distension.

Objective: To determine the safety and effectiveness of PTC[1] in the treatment of acute cholecystitis in elderly debilitated high risk patients.

Methods: The study sample included 10 patients aged 63–88 (mean 77.6 years) with clinical and sonographic signs of acute cholecystitis for more than 48 hours (fever, white blood cells > 12,000/mm³, positive Murphy sign and distended gallbladder) who underwent ultrasound guided PTC. All had severe underlying disease (coronary heart disease, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and others) that places them at high risk for surgical intervention.

Results: Eight patients showed rapid regression of the clinical symptoms following PTC drainage. One patient, with bacterial endocarditis, was febrile for 5 days after catheter insertion, but with rapid resolution of the biliary colic and sepsis. One patient died from perforation of the gallbladder and small bowel. PTC catheters were withdrawn 3–25 days after the procedure, and the patients remained free of biliary symptoms. Two patients underwent successful elective cholecystectomy 3 weeks later.

Conclusion: PTC may be a safe and effective treatment for high risk elderly patients with acute cholecystitis. It can be followed by elective cholecystectomy if the underlying condition improves, as soon as the patient stabilizes and no sepsis is present, or by conservative management in high surgical-risk patients.

[1] PTC = percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy

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