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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

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January 2021
Mathilda Mandel MD, Michael Gurevich PhD, Michal Mandelboim PhD, Howard Amital MD, and Anat Achiron MD PhD

Background: During the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak our blood bank developed protocols to guarantee accurate blood components to COVID-19 patients.

Objectives: To provide convalescent whole blood donor screening strategies for patients recovering from COVID-19.

Methods: We recruited COVID-19 recovering patients who met our defined inclusion criteria for whole blood donation. All blood units were screened for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and SARS-COV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the S1 domain.

Results: We screened 180 blood units from patients recovering from COVID-19. All results were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and 87.2% were positive for SARS-COV-2 IgG antibodies in the plasma.

Conclusions: Blood component units from recovering COVID-19 patients are safe. Plasma units with positive IgG antibodies could serve as an efficient passive immunization for COVID-19 patients. Moreover, in the face of increased transfusion demand for treatment of anemia and coagulation dysfunction in critical ill COVID-19 patients, red blood cells units and random platelets units from convalescent donors can be safely transfused.

January 2020
Alina Weissmann-Brenner MD, Anna Mitlin MD, Chen Hoffman MD, Reuven Achiron MD, Yishai Salem MD and Eldad Katorza MD

Background: Congenital heart defects (CHD) may be associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities mainly due to brain hypoperfusion. This defect is attributed to the major cardiac operations these children underwent, but also to hemodynamic instability during fetal life. Advances in imaging techniques have identified changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)in children with CHD.

Objectives: To examine the correlation between CHD and brain injury using fetal brain MRI.

Methods: We evaluated 46 fetuses diagnosed with CHD who underwent brain MRI. CHD was classified according to in situs anomalies, 4 chamber view (4CV), outflow tracts, arches, and veins as well as cyanotic or complex CHD. We compared MRI results of different classes of CHD and CHD fetuses to a control group of 113 healthy brain MRI examinations.

Results: No significant differences were found in brain pathologies among different classifications of CHD. The anteroposterior percentile of the vermis was significantly smaller in fetuses with abnormal 4CV. A significantly higher biparietal diameter was found in fetuses with abnormal arches. A significantly smaller transcerebellar diameter was found in fetuses with abnormal veins. Compared to the control group, significant differences were found in overall brain pathology in cortex abnormalities and in extra axial findings in the study group. Significantly higher rates of overall brain pathologies, ventricle pathologies, cortex pathologies, and biometrical parameters were found in the cyanotic group compared to the complex group and to the control group.

Conclusions: Fetuses with CHD demonstrate findings in brain MRI that suggest an in utero pathogenesis of the neurological and cognitive anomalies found during child development.

September 2019
Assaf Hilely MD, Hana Leiba MD, Asaf Achiron MD, Idan Hecht MD and Reut Parness-Yossifon MD

Background: Ocular trauma in the pediatric population may lead to cataract formation. Managing traumatic cataracts in a visually immature child is a major challenge and can result in poor visual outcome.

Objectives: To review our long-term surgical experience with childhood unilateral traumatic cataracts.

Methods: A retrospective observational study of children with unilateral traumatic cataracts with minimal follow-up of 5 years was conducted. Main outcomes included final visual acuity (VA) and occurrence of complications.

Results: Of the 18 children included in the study, 83% were male. Mean follow-up time was 12.5 years. Median age at injury was 7.5 years. Eleven patients (61%) presented with penetrating trauma injuries and 7 (39%) with blunt trauma. Sixteen patients (89%) had cataracts at presentation, while in two the cataracts developed during follow-up. Of the 18 total, cataract removal surgery was conducted in 16 (89%) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in 14 (87.5%), while 2 remained aphakic (12.5%). Two (11%) were treated conservatively. Long-term complications included IOL dislocation in 5 (36%), glaucoma in 8 (44%), and posterior capsular opacity in 10 (71%). No correlation was found between final visual acuity and the time interval between injury and IOL implantation nor between final VA and age at trauma. However, the final VA did correlate with time of follow-up.

Conclusions: Severe complications occurred in over 30% of the patients during a long follow-up (mean 12.5 years). This finding shows the importance of discussions between the operating physician and the parents regarding the prognosis and necessity of scheduled follow-up.

March 2018
Ran Nagar MD, Sharon Perlman MD, Or Yariv MD, Zvi Kivilevich MD, Benjamin Dekel MD PhD, Reuven Achiron MD and Yinon Gilboa MD

Background: Sonographic assessment of the fetal kidneys is an integral part of the prenatal anatomical survey.

Objectives: To evaluate the fetal renal to abdominal (RTA) ratio throughout pregnancy and to investigate whether this ratio can be a potential diagnostic landmark for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).

Methods: Measurements of the anterior-posterior diameters of the fetal kidney and fetal abdomen (APAD) were obtained prospectively. The RTA was calculated as the ratio between them in in two groups: normal population vs. CAKUT cases. RTA in CAKUT cases was compared to RTA in a normal population.

Results: The study group was comprised of 210 women. The mean gestational age for the fetuses was 31 ± 5.6 weeks (range 14–40 weeks). Fetal RTA ratio was found to be 0.28 ± 0.03 throughout pregnancy from early second trimester to term, with high reproducibility of measurements. During the study period the RTA was evaluated in nine cases referred for suspected CAKUT. All cases demonstrated a different ratio according to the renal anomaly. High ratio was observed in one case of overgrowth syndrome (Beckwith Wiedenmann syndrome; 0.47), three cases of infantile polycystic kidney (0.45–0.47), and three cases of a solitary kidney (0.31–0.35), while cases of dysplastic kidneys revealed a low ratio (0.14–0.18).

Conclusions: Prenatal RTA ratio is constant throughout gestation. An abnormal ratio should lead to meticulous renal investigation to rule out kidney disease.

April 2017
Yinon Gilboa MD, Sharon Perlman MD, Hila Karp MD, Ron Rabinovitch MD and Reuven Achiron MD

Background: In recent years, the role of intrapartum sonography has expanded in childbirth management, in subjective clinical situations such as arrested deliveries, or prior to instrumental deliveries.

Objectives: To assess the current use of intrapartum ultrasound by obstetricians in Israel.

Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 79 obstetricians in second- and third level- hospitals in Israel. The results were analyzed according to main subspecialty (sonography, delivery), experience and gender.

Results: A questionnaire was completed by 56 senior obstetricians and 23 interns with an average experience of 14.3 and 2.4 years, respectively. All obstetricians performed ultrasound examinations in the delivery room for basic indications such as fetal presentation during twin delivery and to rule out placenta previa. Sonographers consistently reported advanced indications as compared to senior members of delivery teams and interns in the assessment of prolonged first (52% vs. 14% vs. 14%) and second stage of labor (88% vs. 52% vs. 62%) and in assessment of fetal head station (60% vs. 30% vs. 22%), head progression during descent (48% vs. 23% vs. 11%), diagnosis of head position (88% vs. 68% vs. 60%), spine direction (92% vs. 59% vs. 53%) and asynclytism (41% vs. 20% vs. 29%).

Conclusions: Ultrasound is currently used by all physicians in the delivery room for basic indications. However, obstetric teams report a low use of advanced intrapartum ultrasound and prefer to rely on their clinical experience. Advanced intrapartum sonographic imaging should be an integral part of obstetric qualifications. A steep learning curve, along with high reproducibility, suggests that ultrasound devices will become a common tool in labor and delivery management.

 

March 2017
Asaf Achiron MD, Yael Birger MD, Lily Karmona MD, Haggay Avizemer MD, Elisha Bartov MD, Yocheved Rahamim PhD and Zvia Burgansky-Eliash MD

Background: Warm compresses are widely touted as an effective treatment for ocular surface disorders. Black tea compresses are a common household remedy, although there is no evidence in the medical literature proving their effect and their use may lead to harmful side effects. 

Objectives: To describe a case in which the application of black tea to an eye with a corneal epithelial defect led to anterior stromal discoloration; evaluate the prevalence of hot tea compress use; and analyze, in vitro, the discoloring effect of tea compresses on a model of a porcine eye.

Methods: We assessed the prevalence of hot tea compresses in our community and explored the effect of warm tea compresses on the cornea when the corneal epithelium’s integrity is disrupted. An in vitro experiment in which warm compresses were applied to 18 fresh porcine eyes was performed. In half the eyes a corneal epithelial defect was created and in the other half the epithelium was intact. Both groups were divided into subgroups of three eyes each and treated experimentally with warm black tea compresses, pure water, or chamomile tea compresses. We also performed a study in patients with a history of tea compress use. 

Results: Brown discoloration of the anterior stroma appeared only in the porcine corneas that had an epithelial defect and were treated with black tea compresses. No other eyes from any group showed discoloration. Of the patients included in our survey, approximately 50% had applied some sort of tea ingredient as a solid compressor or as the hot liquid.

Conclusions: An intact corneal epithelium serves as an effective barrier against tea-stain discoloration. Only when this layer is disrupted does the damage occur. Therefore, direct application of black tea (Camellia sinensis) to a cornea with an epithelial defect should be avoided.

 

January 2017
Uri Aviv MD, Daniel Ben Ner, Nardeen Sharif, Zvi Gur MD and Asaf Achiron MD

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PES) is a common age-related disorder affecting 60–70 million people worldwide. Patients with PES have abnormal production and deposition of fibrillar material in the anterior chamber of the eye. These exfoliated fibrils, easily detected by ocular slit-lamp examination, have also been found to exist systematically in the skin, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys. Recently, myriad studies have associated PES with systemic conditions such as increased vascular risk, risk of dementia and inflammatory state. We review here the most current literature on the systemic implications of PES. Our aim is to encourage further studies on this important clinical entity.

August 2016
Zvi Gur MD and Asaf Achiron MD
March 2014
Avraham Unterman, Anat Achiron, Itai Gat, Oren Tavor and Amitai Ziv
 Background: Physicians are often insufficiently trained in bedside teaching and mentoring skills. Objectives: To develop, implement and assess a simulation-based training program designed to improve clinical teaching among physicians.

Methods: We developed a one-day tutor training program based on six simulated scenarios with video-based debriefing. The program's efficacy was assessed using questionnaires completed by the participating physicians and their students. Main outcome measures were self-perceived teaching skills at baseline, after participation in the program, and following completion of the tutor role. Secondary outcome measures were the students' perceptions regarding their tutor skills.

Results: Thirty-two physicians (mean age 35.5, 56% females) participated in the program. Self-assessment questionnaires indicated statistically significant improvement following the program in 13 of 20 measures of teaching skills. Additional improvement was observed upon completion of the tutor role, leading to significant improvement in 19 of the 20 measures. Questionnaires completed by their students indicated higher scores in all parameters as compared to a matched control group of tutors who did not participate in the program, though not statistically significant. Most participants stated that the program enhanced their teaching skills (88%), they implement program-acquired skills when teaching students (79%), and they would recommend it to their peers (100%). Satisfaction was similar among participants with and without previous teaching experience.

Conclusions: A novel one-day simulation-based tutor training program was developed and implemented with encouraging results regarding its potential to improve clinical teaching and mentoring skills. 

April 2012
A. Achiron, B.-Z. Garty, S. Menascu, D. Magalashvili, M. Dolev, B. Ben-Zeev and O. Pinhas-Hamiel
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs in young adults and infrequently appears in childhood.

Objectives: To determine the incidence of MS and describe the clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at onset MS in children in Israel.

Methods: Incidence and case-specific data were obtained through the MS Center Database and Israeli Health Statistics Census Data over 15 years, from 1995 to 2009, and compared between patients with childhood (< 12 years), juvenile (> 12 years, < 18 years) and adult (> 18 years) onset MS.

Results: Of 1129 eligible MS patients, we identified 10 (0.89%) with childhood-onset MS, 74 (6.55%) with juvenile-onset MS, and 1045 (92.56%) with adult-onset MS. There were 0 to 3 incident childhood cases/year, leading to an annual incidence of 0.1/100,000 among Israeli children the incidence of juvenile and adult MS was 2.6 and 5.4/100,000, respectively. Neurological presentation among children with MS was optic neuritis, motor weakness or brainstem involvement. CSF oligoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) were positive in 62.5%. The most frequent MRI finding was the occurrence of ¡Ý 3 periventricular white matter lesions followed by corpus callosum lesions, with 71% co-occurrence. Cervical and thoracic lesions occurred in 33% and 43%, respectively. Time to second neurological event ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 years and none of the patients with childhood MS reached EDSS=6.0 within a mean follow-up period of 8.4 years.

Conclusions: Childhood-onset MS is rare, with an incidence of 0.1/100,000 Israeli children. Childhood MS does not differ significantly from juvenile and adult-onset MS in terms of clinical, laboratory and imaging findings.
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