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עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

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February 2023
Lior Baraf MD, Yuval Avidor MD, Anat Bahat Dinur MD, Uri Yoel MD, Benzion Samueli MD, Ben-Zion Joshua MD, Merav Fraenkel MD

Background: Due to the high variability in malignancy rate among cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (Bethesda categories III–V), the American Thyroid Association recommends that each center define its own categorical cancer risk.

Objectives: To assess cancer risk in patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules who were operated at our center.

Methods: In a retrospective study, we analyzed the pathology results of all the patients whose fine needle aspiration results showed Bethesda III–V cytology and who subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy or lobectomy from December 2013 to September 2017.

Results: We analyzed 56 patients with indeterminate cytology on fine needle aspiration. Twenty-nine (52%) were defined as Bethesda III, 19 (34%) Bethesda IV, and 8 (14%) Bethesda V category. Malignancy rates were 38%, 58%, and 100% for Bethesda categories III, IV, and V, respectively. Most malignancies in Bethesda categories III and IV were follicular in origin (follicular thyroid carcinoma and follicular type papillary thyroid carcinoma), while 100% of the patients with Bethesda category V were diagnosed with classical papillary thyroid carcinoma. No correlation was found between sonographic and cytological criteria of nodules with Bethesda categories III and IV and rates of malignancy.

Conclusions: We found higher than expected rates of malignancy in indeterminate cytology. This finding reinforces the guidelines of the American Thyroid Association to establish local malignancy rates for thyroid nodules with indetermined cytology.

September 2015
Uri Yoel MD, Jacob Gopas PhD, Janet Ozer PhD, Roni Peleg MD and Pesach Shvartzman MD

Background: In recent years several reports have been published describing dogs’ ability to detect, by scent, patients with cancer. This ability is based on the sniffing of volatile organic elements that are secreted by malignant cells, react to them. 

Objectives: To evaluate the ability of trained dogs to detect (i) breast cancer cell cultures (MCF7) compared to the control pseudo-normal keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), and then (ii) melanoma (BG) and (iii) type 2 epithelial lung carcinoma (A549) malignant cell cultures to which they were not previously exposed in the course of their training.

Methods: Cell cultures were prepared in a standard manner. Two Belgian Shepherd dogs were trained and then tested in a single-blind test (for dogs and trainers) on their ability to detect the "target specimen," a MCF7 breast cancer cell culture. Following this, the ability of the dogs to detect cancer cell cultures that they were not previously exposed to (i.e., A549, BG) was tested. In each test round, four specimens placed in identical blocks were arranged in a line with one meter between them: one target specimen (MCF7, A549, BG), two control specimens (HaCaT), and a sample containing cell culture medium only.

Results: The two dogs picked out all the target specimens of MCF7 breast cancer cell cultures that they were trained to detect (10/10) as well as all the target specimens that they were not previously exposed to [A549 (5/5) and BG (5/5)], but did not pick out the control specimens or the cell culture medium. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for both dogs were 100%.

Conclusions: The results of this study support the assumption that cancer cells have a unique odor pattern, and that this odor pattern is common to different types of cancer.

 

January 2013
U. Yoel, T. Abu-Hammad, A. Cohen, A. Aizenberg, D. Vardy and P. Shvartzman
 Background: The rate of adherence to treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN) and lipid metabolic disorder (LMD) is significantly lower in the Bedouin population compared with the Jewish population in southern Israel.

Objectives: To investigate the reasons for non-adherence associated with cardiovascular risk factors among Bedouins.

Methods: We identified Bedouin patients with HTN, DM or LMD from medical records and randomly selected 443 high adherent and 403 low adherent patients. Using trained interviewers we conducted in-depth structured interviews regarding knowledge and attitudes to chronic illness and its treatment, health services evaluation, and socio-demographic factors.

Results: The study population included 99 high and 101 low adherent patients. More low adherent patients agreed that traditional therapy can replace prescribed medications for DM, HTN or LMD (47% vs. 26%, P < 0.01), and 10% used only traditional medications. Also, more low adherent patients believed that the side effects of prescribed drugs are actually worse than the disease itself (65% vs. 47%, P < 0.05), and 47% cited this as a reason for discontinuing drug treatment (47% vs. 31%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in this minority population the basis for non-adherence derives directly from patients' perceptions of chronic disease and drug treatment. A focused intervention should emphasize the importance of early evidence-based drug therapy with open patient-physician dialogue on the meaning of chronic disease and the side effects of prescribed drugs.

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