Background: Dietary modifications and patient-tailored medical management are significant in controlling renal stone disease. Nevertheless, the literature regarding effectiveness is sparse.
Objectives: To explore the impact of dietary modifications and medical management on 24-hour urinary metabolic profiles (UMP) and renal stone status in recurrent kidney stone formers.
Methods: We reviewed our prospective registry database of patients treated for nephrolithiasis. Data included age, sex, 24-hour UMP, and stone burden before treatment. Under individual treatment, patients were followed at 6–8 month intervals with repeat 24-hour UMP and radiographic images. Nephrolithiasis-related events (e.g., surgery, renal colic) were also recorded. We included patients with established long-term follow-up prior to the initiation of designated treatment, comparing individual nephrolithiasis status before and after treatment initiation.
Results: Inclusion criteria were met by 44 patients. Median age at treatment start was 60.5 (50.2–70.2) years. Male:Female ratio was 3.9:1. Median follow-up was 10 (6–25) years and 5 (3–6) years before and after initiation of medical and dietary treatment, respectively. Metabolic abnormalities detected included: hypocitraturia (95.5%), low urine volume (56.8%), hypercalciuria (45.5%), hyperoxaluria (40.9%), and hyperuricosuria (13.6%). Repeat 24-hour UMP under appropriate diet and medical treatment revealed a progressive increase in citrate levels compared to baseline and significantly decreased calcium levels (P = 0.001 and 0.03, respectively). A significant decrease was observed in stone burden (P = 0.001) and overall nephrolithiasis-related events.
Conclusions: Dietary modifications and medical management significantly aid in correcting urinary metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, reduced nehprolithiasis-related events and better stone burden control is expected.