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עמוד בית
Wed, 06.12.23

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May 2021
Anat Zalmanovich MD, Ronen Ben-Ami MD, Galia Rahav MD, Danny Alon MD, Allon Moses MD, Karen Olshtain-Pops MD, Miriam Weinberger MD, Pnina Shitrit MD, Michal Katzir MD, Bat-Sheva Gottesman MD, Michal Chowers MD

Background: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Clusters of PJP, especially among organ transplant recipients in clinic settings were described. Data regarding nosocomial PJP infection among inpatients are limited.

Objectives: To assess the magnitude and characteristics of inpatient healthcare-associated PJP infection (HCA-PJP) in HIV-negative patients.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of hospitalized PJP patients was performed to identify HCA-PJP. The study was performed at six medical centers in Israel from 2006 to 2016. HCA-PJP was defined as cases of hospital-onset or those with documented contact with a PJP patient. We reviewed and cross-matched temporal and spatial co-locations of patients. Clinical laboratory characteristics and outcomes were compared.

Results: Seventy-six cases of PJP were identified. Median age was 63.7 years; 64% men; 44% hematological malignancies; 18% inflammatory diseases; and 61% steroid usage. Thirty-two patients (42%) were defined as HCA-PJP: 18/32 (23.6%) were hospitalized at onset and 14/32 (18.4%) had a previous encounter with a PJP patient. Time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was shorter in HCA-PJP vs. community-PJP (3.25 vs. 11.23 days, P = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, dyspnea at presentation (odds ratio [OR] 16.79, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.78–157.95) and a tendency toward higher rate of ventilator support (72% vs. 52%, P = 0.07, OR 5.18, 95%CI 0.7–30.3) were independently associated with HCA-PJP, implying abrupt disease progression in HCA-PJP.

Conclusion: HCA-PJP was common. A high level of suspicion for PJP among selected patients with nosocomial respiratory infection is warranted. Isolation of PJP patients should be considered

July 2015
Tamar Brufman MD, Ronen Ben-Ami MD, Michal Mizrahi MD, Edna Bash MSc and Yael Paran MD

Background: Mycetoma is a chronic and destructive infection caused by either fungus or bacteria. Mycetoma has a characteristic clinical presentation of a triad of tumor-like swelling, draining sinuses, and macroscopic grains. Mycetoma infection is extremely rare in Israel; however, in view of the recent immigration from mycetoma-hyperendemic regions of Africa to Israel, physicians in Israel may encounter this infection.

Objectives: To present two cases of mycetoma caused by Madurella mycatomatis in immigrants from endemic regions in Sudan treated at our hospital, and review the current literature. 

Conclusions: Health care professionals in Israel should suspect mycetoma in patients from endemic countries who present with tumor-like swelling especially in the lower extremity. Health care workers should be able to recognize mycetoma and provide the optimal treatment before the lesion progresses to an advanced and disabling disease. 


June 2015
Ronen Ben-Ami MD and David Denning FRCP

Fungal diseases affect a large proportion of the population, ranging in severity from mild superficial infections to life-threatening invasive diseases. Estimates of disease burden are needed to inform public health policies. We estimated the incidence of fungal diseases in Israel based on published surveillance data and risk-based calculations using previously established models. Deaths associated with fungal diseases were estimated from local surveillance data (candidemia) and published reports (invasive aspergillosis). Candidemia was estimated in 649 persons/year and invasive aspergillosis in 254 persons/year; the associated mortality was 2.75 and 0.96 per 100,000 population/year, respectively. Recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis occurs in 130,440 women annually. National incidence rates of cryptococcosis, pneumocystis pneumonia and mucormycosis could not be reliably estimated. Single-center data-derived estimates yielded 24, 26 and 20 cases/year, respectively. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, asthma with fungal sensitization and allergic fungal sinusitis affect 8297 (range 2323–11,615), 14,372 (14,372–17,965) and 39,922 (15,969–183,643) persons, respectively. In Israel, candidemia and invasive aspergillosis rank high among infection-related causes of mortality. Allergic fungal diseases cause chronic or recurrent symptoms in a large population and may contribute to asthma-related hospitalization and death. These general estimates should serve as a primer for future efforts to study fungal epidemiology. 


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