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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.07.24

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March 2020
Aviad Hoffman MD, Ofir Ben Ishay MD, Nir Horesh MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Eyal Forschmidt MD, Danny Rosin MD, Mordechai Gutman MD FACS and Edward Ram MD

Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease that is poorly understood. Treatment protocols are widely extrapolated from breast cancer in women.

Objectives: To review the experience with MBC of a single center in Israel over a period of 22 years.

Methods: This single center retrospective study evaluated all patients diagnosed with MBC over a period of 22 years (1993–2015). Data were extracted from patient medical charts and included demographics, clinical, surgical, and oncological outcomes.

Results: The study comprised 49 patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 64.1 ± 13.5 years. The majority were diagnosed at early stages (1A–2A) (54.4%), 30.6% were stage 3B mostly due to direct skin and nipple involvement, and 59.2% of the patients had node negative disease. All of the patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma and 30.6% had concomitant ductal carcinoma in situ. Estrogen receptor (ER) status was predominantly positive and luminal B (HER2-) was the most common subtype. Of the patients, 18.4% were BRCA carriers. The majority of patients underwent mastectomy. Radiotherapy was delivered to 46.9% and hormonal therapy to 89.8%. Chemotherapy was administered to 42.9%. Overall survival was 79.6% with a median survival of 60.1 (2–178) months; 5- and 10-year survival was 93.9% and 79.6%, respectively. Progesterone receptor (PR)-negative patients had a significantly improved overall survival.

Conclusions: MBC has increasing incidence. PR-negative status was associated with better overall survival and disease-free interval. Indications to radiotherapy and hormonal therapy need standardization and will benefit from prospective randomized control trials.

March 2018
Avinoam Nevler MD, Yaniv Berger MD, Avital Rabinovitz MD, Oded Zmora MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Danny Rosin MD and Mordechai Gutman MD FACS

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most common indications for emergency abdominal surgery.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the management of acute appendicitis.

Methods: Consecutive emergency department patients referred for a surgical consult for suspected AA were prospectively enrolled in the study. Data regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory results were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed for all evaluated parameters. Clinical and laboratory markers were evaluated for diagnostic accuracy and correlation to the clinical severity, histology reports, and length of hospital stay.

Results: The study was comprised of 100 consecutive patients. ROC curve analysis revealed white blood cell count, absolute neutrophils count (ANC), C-reactive protein, total-bilirubin and direct-bilirubin levels as significant factors for diagnosis of AA. The combination of serum bilirubin levels, alanine transaminase levels, and ANC yielded the highest area under the curve (0.898, 95% confidence interval 0.835–0.962, P<0.001) with a diagnostic accuracy of 86%. In addition, total and direct bilirubin levels significantly correlated with the severity of appendicitis as described in the operative and pathology reports (P < 0.01). Total and direct bilirubin also significantly correlated with the length of hospital stay (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Serum bilirubin levels, alone or combined with other markers, may be considered as a clinical marker for AA correlating with disease existence, severity, and length of hospital stay. These findings support the routine use of serum bilirubin levels in the workup of patients with suspected AA.

April 2017
Avinoam Nevler MD, Gil Har-Zahav MD, Avigdor Abraham MD, Ginette Schiby MD, Oded Zmora MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Danny Rosin MD

Background: Diagnosis of abdominal lymphadenopathy is challenging when not accompanied by peripheral lymphadenopathy. Computed tomography-guided core-needle biopsy has largely replaced open procedures in recent years, but this approach is limited by access to the anatomic region and the amount of tissue acquired.

Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of the laparoscopic approach in obtaining abdominal lymph node biopsies and to evaluate the diagnostic adequacy of the technique.

Methods: We reviewed the data of patients who underwent laparoscopic lymph node biopsy between 2014 and 2014 in our department. Demographics, intra-operative parameters and postoperative course were examined, as were histological reports. Postoperative complications were categorized according to the Clavien-Dindo(CD) classification.

Results: Between 2004 and 2014, 57 laparoscopic biopsies were performed for intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. One case was a repeated attempt due to limited histologic material. The mean age was 49.5 ± 19.6 years. There were two conversions to open laparotomy, one due to small bowel injury and the other due to a sizable mass. Overall, 56 cases had full clinical data: 48 cases (85.7%) had CD=0, six (10.7%) had CD=1, one postoperative severe complication (CD=3) and one mortality (CD=5), which was related to preexisting hepatic insufficiency. Mean hospital stay was 1.6 days. Overall, adequate tissue samples were acquired in 96.7% and only 3 of these cases resulted in inconclusive diagnoses.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic lymph node biopsy is a viable alternative to the currently available methods of tissue retrieval. It provides an access for nodes which are inaccessible percutaneously, and may allow a superior diagnostic yield.

January 2016
Avinoam Nevler MD, Esther Shabtai MD, Danny Rosin MD, Aviad Hoffman MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Moshe Shabtai MD

Background: High density breast mammography has been associated with a greater risk for breast cancer and an increased likelihood of false negative results. 

Objectives: To assess whether the degree of mammographic breast density correlates with an increased risk for the presence of radiographic findings requiring further histological investigation. 

Methods: Included in the study were 2760 consecutive screening mammograms performed in a large volume, early detection mammography unit. All mammograms were complemented by high resolution ultrasound and interpreted by a single expert radiologist. Breast density (BD) was evaluated using a semi-quantitative 5 grade scale and grouped into low breast density (LBD) and high breast density (HBD) mammograms. Demographic and all relevant obstetric, personal and family history of breast cancer data were recorded. 

Results: Of the 2760 mammograms 2096 (76%) were LBD and 664 (24%) were HBD. Mean age of the LBD and HBD groups was 59 ± 10.5 and 50.9 ± 9.3 years respectively (P = 0.001). Breast density significantly correlated with presence of mammographic findings requiring further histological assessment (8.7% and 12.3% for LBD and HBD respectively, P < 0.01). In women younger than 60 years in whom histological assessment was required due to these findings, malignant pathology was significantly more prevalent in the HBD group (2.3% and 4.1% respectively, P = 0.03). Age, parity, patient history and HBD were identified as independent risk factors for any pathological mammographic finding. 

Conclusions: Highly dense mammography, aside from being an indicator of higher risk for breast cancer, appears to be associated with a significantly higher incidence of findings that will prompt further investigation to achieve a definite diagnosis. 


August 2011
D. Rosin, A. Lebedyev, D. Urban, D. Aderka, O. Zmora, M. Khaikin, A. Hoffman, M. Shabtai and A. Ayalon

Background: The treatment of rectal cancer has changed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced surgical techniques have led to an increase in the rate of sphincter-preserving operations, even for low rectal tumors. This was facilitated by preoperative oncologic treatment and the use of chemoradiation to downstage the tumor before resection. The introduction of total mesorectal excision further improved the oncologic outcome and became the standard of care. The use of laparoscopy for rectal resection is the most recent addition to this series of improvements, but in contrast to the use of laparoscopy in colon cancer its role is not yet well defined.

Objectives: To present our experience with laparoscopic surgery for upper and lower rectal tumors.

Methods: A database was used to prospectively collect all data on laparoscopic rectal surgery in our department since we started performing these procedures in 1997. Follow-up data were collected from outpatient clinic visits, oncology files and telephone interviews. Updated survival data were retrieved from the national census.

Results: Of 750 laparoscopic colorectal procedures performed over a 13 year period, 67 were for rectal cancer. Of these, 29 were resections for tumors in the upper rectum (1115 cm from the anal verge) and 38 for tumors at 10 cm or below. Surgery was performed in 24 patients after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. There were 54 sphincter-preserving operations and 13 abdominoperineal resections. The mean operative time was 283 minutes. Conversion to an open procedure was required in 22% of the cases. Anastomotic leaks occurred in 17% of cases. Postoperative mortality was 4.5%. Long-term follow-up was available for 77% of the group, for a mean period of 42 months. Local recurrence was diagnosed in 4.5% of the patients and overall 5 year survival was 68%.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic rectal resection is a demanding procedure. However, laparoscopy may become the preferred approach since it is a minimally invasive procedure and has an acceptable oncologic outcome that is comparable to the open approach. This conclusion, however, needs further validation.

September 2003
E.L. Shabtai, M. Ben-Haim, D. Rosin, J. Kuriansky, E. Gazit, A. Ayalon and M. Shabtai

Background: An organ sharing system should achieve fairness and optimal graft longevity. Balancing between social and utilitarian considerations is a sensitive ethical, public and medical issue that requires a means to examine the consequences of any allocation policy or planned changes thereof.

Objective: To evaluate the performance and applicability of a computerized simulation model by examining the impact of two opposing organ allocation policies (social or utilitarian) on predicted organ distribution regarding age, waiting time, recipient sensitization measured by panel reactive antibody level and overall donor-recipient tissue matching (measured by the number of HLA antigen mismatches).

Methods: Using a computerized simulation model, virtual donors and recipients were emulated and organs were allocated according to either social algorithms or utilitarian policies. The resulting number of HLA mismatches, PRA[1], age, and waiting time distributions were compared between allocation strategies.

Results: Simulating allocation of 7,000 organs to 17,000 candidate recipients and implementing social policies yielded donor-recipient compatibility comparable to utilitarian policies (0–1 mm: 19.4% vs. 28%) while allocating 66.7% of organs to long waiters (>48 months).

Conclusion: This computerized simulation model is a valuable tool for decision-makers establishing or modifying organ allocation policies.

[1] PRA = panel reactive antibody

May 2003
M. Ben Haim, S.T. Zwas, Y. Munz, D. Rosin, E.L. Shabtai, J. Kuriansky, D. Olchovsky, O. Zmora, A. Scarlat, A. Ayalon and M. Shabtai

Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism in elderly patients is usually associated with additional co-morbidity that increases operative risk, and thus many geriatric patients are denied the benefit of surgery for a single parathyroid adenoma.

Objectives:  To evaluate the safety and efficacy of accurate single photon emission computed tomography sestamibi scintigraphy, enabling precise localization of a single adenoma, in the geriatric population

Methods: Twenty-two patients aged 70 years and over with biochemically proven PHPT[1] and with a single parathyroid adenoma identified by localization studies (sestamibi SPECT[2] scan and ultrasonography) underwent 23 operations over 29 months (out of a total of 140 patients operated upon during the same period). Immediate preoperative sestamibi scintigraphy and marking of focal adenoma uptake followed by intraoperative hand-held gamma probe were used for the removal of the parathyroid adenoma by unilateral minimal access surgery. Associated major co-morbid conditions and pre- and postoperative calcium, phosphorus and parathormone levels were recorded. Indications for surgery were listed and operative and postoperative complications were noted. The patients were followed for a mean period of 17.7 months using the same parameters.

Results: The 22 patients with PHPT had a mean age of 76.3 ± 5.9 years (range 70–88 years)  and a female to male ratio of 13:9. Associated co-morbidity included ischemic heart disease (n=15), hypertension (n=22), non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (n=9), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=3), and previous neck surgery (n=3). Mean preoperative serum calcium, phosphorous and PTH[3] were 11.7 ± 1.3 mg/dl, 2.5 ± 0.5 mg/dl and 160.9 ± 75.4 pg/ml respectively. In 20 of the 22 patients, surgery was successful in curing PHPT (91%). One patient had persistent hypercalcemia due to a missed adenoma, and repeat operation (by focused minimal access surgery) was successfully performed 2 weeks later. There were no complications and no morbidity postoperatively. Mean postoperative serum calcium, phosphorous and PTH were 9.6 ± 1.2 mg/dl, 3.0 ± 0.5 mg/dl and 35.2 ± 24 pg/ml respectively. In all patients, serum calcium levels remained normal (9.7 ± 1.3 mg/ml) after long-term follow-up (mean 17.7 ± 9.6 months).

Conclusions: Minimally invasive, radio-guided focused parathyroidectomy for a single adenoma is a safe and effective method to cure hyperparathyroidism in the elderly. Success of surgery is directly related to the surgeon's experience and to the precise localization marking provided by sestamibi scintigraphic SPECT localization and concurrent sonographic findings.

[1] PHPT = primary hyperparathyroidism

[2] SPECT = single photon emission computed tomography

[3] PTH = parathormone

November 2001
Moshe Shabtai, MD, Patricia Saavedra-Malinger, MD, Esther L. Shabtai, MSc, Dan Rosin, MD, Josef Kuriansky, MD, Michal Ravid-Megido, MD, MSc, Menachem Ben Haim, MD and Amram H. Ayalon, MD

Background: Fibroadema, one of the most common benign breast lesions, has a characteristic age-specific incidence and is associated with other pathological entities in 50% of cases. The clinical or imaging diagnosis of fibroadenoma may be erroneous, and in some cases is found to be invasive cancer. The clustering of such entities, their correlation with age, and the risk of synchronous breast malignancy are uncertain.

Objective: To explore the possibility of any sigficant clustering of fibroadenoma-associated benign breast disease and to assess the possible risk of concomitant breast cancer.

Method: We analyzed the pathological results of 147 women undergoing excisional biopsies for fibroadenoma diagnosed pre-operatively either by clinical examination and imaging (n=117) or by radiology alone (n=30). The inter-relationships among all entities associated with fibroadenoma were studies by hierarchial cluster analysis. The correlation of the various pathologies with the risk of invasive breast cancer in relation to the patient’s age was also evaluated.

Results: Fibroadema-associated pathologies were found in 48% of the cases: sclerosing adenosis (23%), duct ectasia (17/7%), apocrine metaplasia (15.6%), florid fibrocystic disease (12.9%), duct papillomatosis (11.6%), infiltrating duct carcinoma (5.4%), duct carcinoma in situ (3.4%), and 1 case of lobular carcinoma in situ (0.6%). An orderly internal hierarchy and three significant clusters emerged: a) epithelial apocrine metaplasia, duct ectasia and sclerosing adenosis (similarity coefficients 16.0, 11.0 and 8.0 respectively); b) papillomatosis, florid fibrocystic disease and calcifications (similarity coefficients of 6.0, 4.0 and 2.0 respectively); and c) infiltrating duct carcinoma in situ (similarity coefficients of 1.8 and 1.6 respectively). Seven of the eight patients with breast cancer were older than 40 years.

Conclusions: In about half of the cases fibroadema was associated with other pathological entities clustered in an orderly hierarchy. The rarity of synchronous breast cancer in the younger age group and its more common association with fibroadema in the older age groups dictate a different approach to each. The finding of fibroadema in women older than 40 indicates the need for surgical excision.

April 2000
Eytan Mor MD, Rachel Michowiz RN MA, Tamar Ashkenazi RN MSc Ethi Shabtai PhD, Richard Nakache MD, Ahmed Eid MD, Aaron Hoffman MD, Solly Mizrahi MD, Moshe Shabtai MD and Zaki Shapira MD1 for the Israel Transplant Center

Background: Over a 12 month period, the Israel Transplant Center doubled the number of donors by assigning a nurse coordinator to each of 22 hospitals around the country and by using kidneys from elderly donors.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of our "marginal donors" policy on the results immediately following transplantation.

Methods: Between October 1997 and September 1998, 140 cadaveric kidney transplantations from 72 donors were performed in Israel. We defined two groups of recipients: patients with immediate graft function and patients with either delayed graft function requiring >1 week of dialysis post-transplant or with primary graft non-function. We compared the following parameters between groups: donor and recipient age and gender, cause of donor’s death, length of stay in the intensive care unit, vasopressor dosage and creatinine levels before harvesting, cold ischemic time, and the number of recipient grafts.

Results: There were 102 recipients (72.8%) with immediate graft function and 38 with either PNF (n=13, 9.3%) or DGF (n=25, 17.9%). On regression analysis, donor age >50 year and retransplantation were significant risk factors for PNF or DGF (odds ratio 4.4 and 2.8, respectively). Of the 56 kidneys from donors >50 years old, 21 (37.5%) developed either PNF (n=9) or DGF (n=12).

Conclusions: We conclude that kidneys from donors over age 50 are at increased risk for graft non-function or delayed function. Better assessment of functional capacity of kidneys from “aged” donors may help to choose appropriate donors from that pool.


PNF = primary graft non-function

DGF = delayed graft function

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