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עמוד בית
Tue, 16.07.24

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December 2022
Lior Charach MD, Gideon Charach MD, Eli Karniel MD, Dorin Bar Ziv MD, Leonid Galin MD, Weintraub M MD, Itamar Grosskopf MD

Background: APOE genotype strongly affects plasma lipid levels and risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. Studies of apo-e allelic and APOE genotype frequencies among several populations have revealed interesting ethnic variations that might affect cardiovascular morbidity and cognition deterioration.

Objectives: To evaluate apo-e allelic frequency among Israeli newborns based on known variances in apo-e allelic frequencies in different countries.

Methods: We examined 498 consecutive neonates born at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Umbilical cord blood was sampled for genotyping and lipids. Birth weights were recorded. Demographics and parental risk factors for atherosclerosis were obtained from the mothers.

Results: Most parents were native-born Israelis. Other countries of origin of grandparents were Morocco, Russia, and Iraq. The prevalence of APOE genotypes in Israel is APOE 2/2: 1.4%, APOE 2/3: 8.2%, APOE 3/3: 77.7%, and APOE 4/4: 11.8%. There were no associations of APOE genotype with parental country of origin. However, there was a tendency for APOE 3/4 to be more frequent in newborns of parents of Asian and African origin. Genotype 3/3 was more frequent in newborns whose parents came from Europe and America (78%) compared to those from Asia or Africa (69%).

Conclusions: It is important to determine risk factors such as APOE genotype for evaluation of premature atherosclerosis. Determining genetic and environmental risk factors may facilitate earlier treatment and prevent heart and brain atherosclerosis. APOE genotypes did not appear to affect total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride levels in newborns.

February 2020
Gideon Charach MD, Eli Karniel MD, Itamar Grosskopf MD and Lior Charach MD

Background: Internal thoracic impedance (ITI) measurement is a sensitive method for detecting preclinical pulmonary edema and pleural effusion.

Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of this non-invasive method for detecting early pleural effusion among geriatric patients and to monitor increased ITI during its resolution.

Methods: This prospective, controlled study was conducted between July 2012 and August 2015. The study comprised 70 patients aged 65 to 94 years; and 39 of the patients had pleural effusion. ITI was measured continuously with a RS-207 monitor. The predictive value of ITI monitoring was determined based on a total of eight measurements taken at 12-hour intervals over 84 hours.

Results: As a result of medical treatment, the median ITI of the study group increased from 31 (interquartile range [IQR] 28–33 ohms) to 41 ohms (IQR 38–41 ohms; P < 0.001) compared to non-significant changes in the control group. Average respiratory rate (per minute) in the study group decreased from 29 (IQR 28–34) to 19 (IQR 18–20).

Conclusions: ITI monitoring is efficient for diagnosis and for ongoing clinical evaluation of the treatment of elderly patients with pleural effusion. Timely treatment may prevent serious complications of effusions avoiding extended hospitalization.

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