Background: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality.
Objectives: To evaluate multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria carriage in selected populations.
Methods: Data were collected from all patients under 18 years who met our internal guidelines from 2015–2016. They were screened for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), extended spectrum beta-actamase (ESBL), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Indications for screening were non-resident non-Israeli patients (from the Palestinian Authority, Syria, and foreign patients), internal transfers from intensive care units, admission to high-risk departments, recent carriage of MDR bacteria, transfer from other hospitals, and recent hospitalization. Data were analyzed for MDR bacteria from at least one screening site (rectal, nasal, axillary, groin, throat). All data were analyzed per patient and per sample.
Results: During the study period 185/2632 positive screening sets (7%) were obtained from 725 patients. Of these, 165 patients (22.7%) were positive for at least one pathogen. Significantly fewer Israeli residents (120/615, 19.5%) tested positive compared to non-Israeli residents (45/110, 40.9%; P < 0.001). Past MDR bacteria carriage was the only significant screening indication (25/61, 41%; P < 0.001). CRE, VRE, MRSA, and ESBL prevalence rates were 0.6% (5/771), 0.5% (3/560) 0.5%, 4.2% (37/888), and 33.7% (139/413), respectively. Among non-ESBL carriers, MRSA was predominant with 38 positive cultures (n=34).
Conclusions: Non-Israeli non-residents and patients with previous positive MDR screening are at higher risk for MDR bacteria. Indications used to identify high-risk patients for drug resistant pathogens were efficacious. More effort is needed to reduce excessive sampling.