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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.07.24

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May 2021
Anat Zalmanovich MD, Ronen Ben-Ami MD, Galia Rahav MD, Danny Alon MD, Allon Moses MD, Karen Olshtain-Pops MD, Miriam Weinberger MD, Pnina Shitrit MD, Michal Katzir MD, Bat-Sheva Gottesman MD, Michal Chowers MD

Background: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Clusters of PJP, especially among organ transplant recipients in clinic settings were described. Data regarding nosocomial PJP infection among inpatients are limited.

Objectives: To assess the magnitude and characteristics of inpatient healthcare-associated PJP infection (HCA-PJP) in HIV-negative patients.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of hospitalized PJP patients was performed to identify HCA-PJP. The study was performed at six medical centers in Israel from 2006 to 2016. HCA-PJP was defined as cases of hospital-onset or those with documented contact with a PJP patient. We reviewed and cross-matched temporal and spatial co-locations of patients. Clinical laboratory characteristics and outcomes were compared.

Results: Seventy-six cases of PJP were identified. Median age was 63.7 years; 64% men; 44% hematological malignancies; 18% inflammatory diseases; and 61% steroid usage. Thirty-two patients (42%) were defined as HCA-PJP: 18/32 (23.6%) were hospitalized at onset and 14/32 (18.4%) had a previous encounter with a PJP patient. Time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was shorter in HCA-PJP vs. community-PJP (3.25 vs. 11.23 days, P = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, dyspnea at presentation (odds ratio [OR] 16.79, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.78–157.95) and a tendency toward higher rate of ventilator support (72% vs. 52%, P = 0.07, OR 5.18, 95%CI 0.7–30.3) were independently associated with HCA-PJP, implying abrupt disease progression in HCA-PJP.

Conclusion: HCA-PJP was common. A high level of suspicion for PJP among selected patients with nosocomial respiratory infection is warranted. Isolation of PJP patients should be considered

April 2017
Noam Oz MD, Danny Alon MD, Gideon Y Stein MD PhD and Dan Turner MD

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for populations at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still not available in Israel.

Objectives: To analyze post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatment adherence rates among adult men in Tel Aviv, Israel, who have sex with men (MSM), and to obtain data on the demographics of PEP users, exposure types, timeline of exposure and PEP administration, incidence of side effects, number of treatments per individual, and satisfaction with selected elements of treatment provision.

Methods: The authors conducted an observational cohort study of adult MSM who requested PEP treatment in the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Information from patients receiving treatment between January 2013 and June 2014 was obtained through telephone interviews by means of a 30-item questionnaire.

Results: Of 336 individuals requesting PEP treatment, 255 (75.9%) were adult MSM, and 100 (39.2%) satisfactorily completed the interview. The average age of the study cohort was 32.4 years (standard deviation of 7.5). Ninety-one (91%) reported completing a full 28-day course of treatment, 84% reported side effects, and 20% underwent multiple courses. Satisfaction was high for interactions with the HIV specialists. Patient experience with PEP treatment in the emergency room setting, and follow-up were inadequate deficient.

Conclusions: PEP adherence rates in Tel Aviv were significantly higher than previously reported. PEP should be administered in designated community settings. PrEP as a general treatment policy might suit the MSM population in Tel Aviv.

 

March 2017
Danny Alon MD, Gideon Y. Stein MD PhD, Vered Hadas-Golan RN, Luba Tau MD, Tal Brosh MD and Dan Turner MD

Background: Guidelines recommend hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination of all adults positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immune responses to single-antigen HBV vaccine among HIV-positive patients are low when compared with HIV-negative adults. Sci-B-Vac™ is a recombinant third-generation HBV that may be advantageous in this population.

Objectives: To examine the immune responses to Sci-B-Vac among HIV-positive adults.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study involving HIV-positive adults who had negative HBV serology (HBSAg, HBSAb, HBcoreAb). Sci-B-Vac at 10 µg/dose was administered intramuscularly upon recruitment and after 1 and 6 months. HBSAb levels were checked 1 month after each dose; a level > 10 mlU/ml was considered protective. Data regarding age, gender, CD4 level, and viral load were collected.

Results: The study group comprised 31 patients. Average CD4 count was 503 ± 281 cells/ml, and average viral load was 44 copies/ml. Median interquartile range (IQR) HBVAb titers after the first, second and third immunizations were 0 (0, 3.5), 30 (6, 126) and 253 (81, 408) mlU/ml. Significant titer elevations were found between the second and third immunizations (P = 0.0003). The rate of patients considered protected was 16% after the first, 65% after the second (P < 0.0001), and 84% after the third dose (P = 0.045). No adverse events were reported. More patients under the age of 40 years responded to the first immunization (28% vs. 0%, P = 0.038). CD4 level had no influence on immunization rates.

Conclusions: Sci-B-Vac might achieve better immunization rates among HIV-positive adults compared to the single-antigen vaccine and thus deserves further evaluation in a randomized, double-blind study in this population.

June 2016
Noam Oz MD, Danny Alon MD, Chava Chezar-Azerrad MD, Lisa Cooper MD, Yochai Levi MD, Shmuel Fuchs MD and Gideon Y. Stein MD PhD

Background: Prophylaxis for hospitalized venous-thromboembolic events (VTEs) is frequently underutilized, in part due to lack of a simple risk assessment model (RAM). 

Objectives: To compare patient selection and administration of VTE prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2008 guidelines versus the newer 2012 guidelines, and assess the feasibility of developing simpler local RAMs.

Methods: We conducted a prospective assessment of VTE risk among 300 unselected consecutive patients admitted to a medical hospital ward, using the 2008 and 2012 ACCP guidelines. The frequency and relative weight of each risk factor in the 2012 ACCP guidelines were used to develop a local VTE RAM.

Results: VTE prophylaxis was indicated by the 2008 and 2012 ACCP guidelines in 40% and 42% of the cohort respectively, and was administered in 28% and 26% of eligible patients, respectively. Contraindication to VTE prophylaxis was found in 29% of patients according to both guidelines. In comparison to the 2008 guidelines, sensitivity and specificity of the 2012 guidelines were 96% and 88%, respectively. A local RAM based on the following concise score, comprising age, malignancy and immobility, correctly identified 99% of at-risk patients based on the 2012 guidelines, with a sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 95%, respectively.

Conclusions: Both guidelines performed to a similar degree and were poorly implemented in daily practice. A simplified RAM accurately identified the vast majority of these eligible patients. The development of local RAMs is feasible and may result in higher utilization rates.

 

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