Background: The hepatobiliary system is a sterile micro-environment. Bacterial infection in this system is most commonly associated with anaerobes as well as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Biliary infections with Staphylococcus aureus are poorly characterized.
Objectives: To depict the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with S. aureus infection of the hepatobiliary system.
Methods: Medical records of patients with bile cultures positive for S. aureus from January 2006 to November 2020 were extracted from the computerized database of a hospital in Israel.
Results: We analyzed the results of 28 cases that were found in the database. The mean age of study patients was 62.2 ± 19 years. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and benign prostatic hypertrophy were the most common co-morbidities (57.1%, 32.1%, 25%, 25%, and 25%, respectively). Fourteen of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bile cultures (82.3%) were a result of primary S. aureus biliary infections (no other source for S. aureus infection) and the remainder were of a secondary infection. Eight of the MRSA cultures (47.1%) were from hospital acquired infections. Increased hospital mortality in patients with S. aureus hepatobiliary infection was associated with hypertension (P = 0.04), bedridden status (P = 0.01), and nursing home residence (P = 0.003).
Conclusions: Hepatobiliary infection with S. aureus can manifest in a variety of ways. S. aureus should be especially considered in patients who are bedridden, present with hypertension, or live in nursing homes because of their association with in-hospital mortality resulting from this entity.