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עמוד בית
Wed, 24.07.24

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June 2020
Lior Orbach MD, Ido Nachmany MD, Yaacov Goykhman MD, Guy Lahat MD, Ofer Yossepowitch MD, Avi Beri MD, Yanai Ben-Gal MD, Joseph M. Klausner MD and Nir Lubezky MD

Background: Abdominal tumors invading the inferior vena cava (IVC) present significant challenges to surgeons and oncologists.

Objectives: To describe a surgical approach and patient outcomes.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of surgically resected tumors with IVC involvement by direct tumor encasement or intravascular tumor growth. Patients were classified according to level of IVC involvement, presence of intravascular tumor thrombus, and presence of hepatic parenchymal involvement.

Results: Study patients presented with leiomyosarcomas (n=5), renal cell carcinoma (n=7), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=1), cholangiocarcinoma (n=2), Wilms tumor (n=1), neuroblastoma (n=1), endometrial leiomyomatosis (n=1), adrenocortical carcinoma (n=1), and paraganglioma (n=1). The surgeries were conducted between 2010 and 2019. Extension of tumor thrombus above the hepatic veins required a venovenous bypass (n=3) or a full cardiac bypass (n=1). Hepatic parenchymal involvement required total hepatic vascular isolation with in situ hepatic perfusion and cooling (n=3). Circular resection of IVC was performed in five cases. Six patients had early postoperative complications, and the 90-day mortality rate was 10%. Twelve patients were alive, and six were disease-free after a mean follow-up of 1.6 years.

Conclusions: Surgical resection of abdominal tumors with IVC involvement can be performed in selected patients with acceptable morbidity and mortality. Careful patient selection, and multidisciplinary involvement in preoperative planning are key for optimal outcome.

March 2010
M. Sofer, G. Lidawi, G. Keren-Paz, R. Yehiely, A. Beri and H. Matzkin

Background: Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy is defined as PCNL[1] without postoperative nephrostomy tubes. It is reported to reduce postoperative pain, hospital stay and recovery time. To date the procedure has been reserved for selected patients.

Objectives: To assess our initial experience in extending the implementation of tubeless PCNL without preoperative patient selection.

Methods: All consecutive PCNLs performed during 2004–2008 were evaluated. Tubeless PCNL was performed when residual stones, bleeding and extravasation were excluded intraoperatively. Staghorn stones, stone burden, supracostal and multiple accesses, anatomic anomalies, solitary kidneys and operative time were not considered contraindications. We analyzed the clinical data and the choice of tubeless PCNL over time.

Results: Of 281 PCNLs performed during the study period, 200 (71%) were tubeless. The patients' average age was 53 years (range 28–82 years), the stone burden was 924 mm2 (400–3150 mm2), operative time was 99 minutes (45–210 min), complication rate was 14% and immediate stone-free rate 91%. There were 81 conversions to standard PCNL (29%) due to expected second-look (n=47, 58%), impression of bleeding (n=21, 26%), suspected hydrothorax (n=7, 9%) and extravasation (n=6, 7%). The transfusion rate was 1%. The median hospital stay was 1 day (1–15 days) and recovery time 7 days (5–20 days). The rate of implementing the tubeless procedure increased steadily along time from 46% to 83% (P = 0.0001). 

Conclusions: Tubeless PCNL can be safely and effectively performed based on intraoperative decisions, without preoperative contraindications. They are easily accommodated by experienced endourologists and provide real advantages.


[1] PCNL = percutaneous nephrolithotomy


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