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עמוד בית
Tue, 04.10.22

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April 2020
Shira Rabinowicz, Marina Rubinshtein, Tzipora Strauss, Galia Barkai, Amir Vardi and Gideon Paret
August 2003
July 2002
Amir Vardi, MD, Inbal Levin, RN, Haim Berkenstadt, MD, Ariel Hourvitz, MD, Arik Eisenkraft, MD, Amir Cohen, MD and Amital Ziv, MD

With chemical warfare becoming an imminent threat, medical systems need to be prepared to treat the resultant mass casualties. Medical preparedness should not be limited to the triage and logistics of mass casualties and first-line treatment, but should include knowledge and training covering the whole medical spectrum. In view of the unique characteristics of chemical warfare casualties the use of simulation-assisted medical training is highly appropriate. Our objective was to explore the potential of simulator-based teaching to train medical teams in the treatment of chemical warfare casualties. The training concept integrates several types of skill-training simulators, including high tech and low tech simulators as well as standardized simulated patients in a specialized simulated setting. The combined use of multi-simulation modalities makes this maverick program an excellent solution for the challenge of multidisciplinary training in the face of the looming chemical warfare threat.

November 1999
Gideon Paret MD, Tamar Ziv MD, Arie Augarten MD, Asher Barzilai MD, Ron Ben-Abraham MD, Amir Vardi MD, Yossi Manisterski MD and Zohar Barzilay MD, FCCM

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a well-recognized condition resulting in high permeability pulmonary edema associated with a high morbidity.

Objectives: To examine a 10 year experience of predisposing factors, describe the clinical course, and assess predictors of mortality in children with this syndrome.

Methods: The medical records of all admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit over a 10 year period were evaluated to identify children with ARDS1. Patients were considered to have ARDS if they met all of the following criteria: acute onset of diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates of non-cardiac origin and severe hypoxemia defined by <200 partial pressure of oxygen during ³6 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure for a minimum of 24 hours. The medical records were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and physiologic information including PaO22 /forced expiratory O2, alveolar–arterial O2 difference, and ventilation index.

Results: We identified 39 children with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mean age was 7.4 years (range 50 days to 16 years) and the male:female ratio was 24:15. Predisposing insults included sepsis, pneumonias, malignancy, major trauma, shock, aspiration, near drowning, burns, and envenomation. The mortality rate was 61.5%. Predictors of death included the PaO2/FIO2, ventilation index and A-aDO23 on the second day after diagnosis. Non-survivors had significantly lower PaO2/FIO2 (116±12 vs. 175±8.3, P<0.001), and higher A-aDO2 (368±28.9 vs. 228.0±15.5, P<0.001) and ventilation index (43.3±2.9 vs. 53.1±18.0, P<0.001) than survivors.

Conclusions: Local mortality outcome for ARDS is comparable to those in tertiary referral institutions in the United States and Western Europe. The PaO2/FIO2, A-aDO2 and ventilation index are valuable for predicting outcome in ARDS by the second day of conventional therapy. The development of a local risk profile may allow early application of innovative therapies in this population. 

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1ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome

2 PaO2 = partial pressure of oxygen

3A-aDO2 = alveolar–arterial O2 difference

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