עמוד בית שבת, 17.11.18

פברואר 2000


1 בפברואר
אמיליה אניס, אלכס לבנטל, מלוינה רויטמן ופאול סלייטר

Introduction of Routine Hepatitis Immunization in Israel 


Emilia Anis, Alex Leventhal, Malvina Roitman, Paul E. Slater 

 

Notification of hepatitis A, which is endemic in Israel, has been compulsory since the establishment of the State. From 1992-98 an average of 2,600 cases were reported annually. Many infections are asymptomatic and mild, especially in children. In general, severity increases with age; in Western countries the case fatality rate is 1.5/1,000 among children less than 5 years old and 27/1,000 among those over 50. Until 1987 incidence in Israel was higher in Jews than in non-Jews, but since 1988 incidence has been about 50% higher in non-Jews.

Among Jews highest age specific rates shifted from children 1-4 years old to children 5-9 years old in 1970, and in non-Jews in 1989. Improved sanitary conditions and personal hygiene have reduced very early childhood exposure and hence increased the proportion of susceptible older children and adults, in whom symptomatic disease is more prevalent.

Israel is the first country in the world to include hepatitis A vaccine in its routine immunization schedule. The vaccine is given in 2 doses: at 18 months and 24-30 months of age, and there will be epidemiologic and serologic follow-up. A significant decrease in hepatitis A morbidity is expected in small children within 5 years. The percentage of reported cases in older children and in adults is expected to increase, although the absolute incidence among these groups will decrease.
 


Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health Services, Israel Ministry of Health, Jerusalem

נורית ניראל

Employment of Immigrant Russian Physicians 


Nurit Nirel

 

JDC-Brookdale Institute of Gerontology and Human Development, Jerusalem

 

This study examined trends in the employment of immigrant physicians from the former Soviet Union. We studied the changes in the proportion of immigrants employed as physicians between 1994 and 1998, job characteristics, positions, professional status, and improvement in employment characteristics, professional status, and in wages due to increased seniority.

The study population consisted of 7,000 physicians who had immigrated to Israel by June 1992 and had applied to the Ministry of Health for medical licensing. Of these, 726 were interviewed in 1994 and in 1998 all 726 were again approached and 84% were interviewed by telephone.

Of those interviewed in 1998, 63% were working as physicians, 21% in another occupation, and 16% were not working at all. Of those with medical licenses, 79% were working as physicians. Of those interviewed in 1994, 93% were still employed as physicians in 1998, and 88% of them had been so employed continuously. As of 1998, 85% of those interviewed had 5 or more years seniority as physicians in Israel, and half had been working for more than 5 years at their current place of employment.

The best predictor-variable for employment as a physician in 1998 was employment as a physician in 1994. The proportions of those employed by a public employer, of those earning monthly salaries, and of those with a tenured position, were greater in 1998 than in 1994.

In 1998, 70% reported being employed in a authorized staff position. Funding for the salaries of 75% of these physicians came from the budget of their place of employment, not from a grant, stipend, or temporary fund for the assistance of immigrants. These proportions increased with seniority. The proportions of specialists (22%) and residents (37%) had increased in 1998 relative to 1994 (when they were 8% and 23% respectively). In addition, since 1994 gross hourly wages had increased with seniority in real terms by more than 100%.

These findings are evidence of work stability and improvement in employment conditions of these immigrant physicians. Further, the 1998 follow-up indicated a trend toward becoming "established" and improvement in professional status. However, it also revealed models of temporary employment, not in compliance with physicians' collective work agreements, a situation that warrants examination. It is also important to examine the implications of the absorption of so many physicians for medical manpower in Israel, and for overall expenditure on health.

אורית פנחס חמיאל, אילנה קורן ופנינה ורדי

Type 2 Diabetes among Adolescents in Israel 


Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Ilana Koren, Pnina Vardi

 

Maccabi Juvenile Diabetes Center, Ramat Hasharon and Lin Diabetes Center, Haifa

 

Type 2 diabetes has been considered rare in children and adolescents. Recently, increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes has been reported among adolescents in various parts of the world. We report the occurrence of type 2 diabetes among adolescents in Israel.

A boy of 14 and girls of 16.5 and 17 were pubertal and extremely obese, with a body mass index (BMI) between 39-47 kg/m2. Acanthosis nigricans, elevated diastolic blood pressure, and hirsutism with menstrual disorders, were associated with insulin resistance, and should raise suspicion of type 2 diabetes. Significant obesity and strong family histories of type 2 diabetes appeared to be important risk factors. Since type 2 leads to long-term morbidity and mortality, its early identification and appropriate treatment are crucial.

דוד גלינסקי, ורה פריד, איה בידרמן, ג'ולי צוויקל ויוספה בן משה

Identifying the Elderly at Risk for Falling 


D. Galinsky, V. Fried, A. Biderman, J. Cwikel, Y. Ben Moshe

 

Geriatric Dept., Soroka University Hospital and Depts. of Family Medicine and of Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev; and ESHEL, Beer Sheba

 

Falling is one of the main problems affecting the health of the elderly. A community project was carried out to detect elderly people at high risk for falls. One of its aims was also to develop tools allowing primary care professionals to detect the elderly at risk for falling. Such a screening test in the community-dwelling elderly (EFST) and a protocol for diagnosis and treatment of the elderly at risk for falls is presented.

א' דויטש וא' חברון

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Extracranial Complications of Sinusitis

 

E. Deutsch, I. Hevron

 

ENT Dept., Bikur Cholim Hospital, Jerusalem

 

Orbital subperiosteal abscess (SPA) and Pott's puffy tumor (PPT) are the major extracranial complications of acute sinusitis. These complications are aggravated by the close anatomic relationships between the nasal sinuses and the orbits and frontal bone. Furthermore, the rich diploic venous drainage of the region enhances the spread of the infection.

Between 1992 and 1997, 16 patients (mean age 12 years, range 2-15, 10 of them males), 11 of them with SPA and 4 with PPT were operated on by the senior author by means of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Indications for operation included: CT findings of abscess formation and lack of clinical improvement after 48 hours of IV antibiotic therapy. Clinical resolution of symptoms was achieved in all and there were no operative or postoperative complications.

We emphasize and explain the advantages of ESS over external approaches in surgery for extracranial complications of acute sinusitis by several facts: the technique treats the source of the disease, clinical success rate is high, morbidity is low, and facial distortion and poor cosmetic results completely avoided.

אורנה צישינסקי ויעל לצר

Nocturnal Eating Disorder - Sleep or Eating Disorder?

 

Orna Tzischinski, Yael Lazer

 

Sleep Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Israel Institute of Technology; and Eating Disorders Clinic, Psychiatric Division, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa

 

Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory.

Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually.

In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented.

עפר קרן, פלביה שטיינברג, עמירם כץ וניר גלעדי

Botulin Toxin for Spasticity in Spinal Cord Damage

 

Ofer Keren, Flabia Shinberg, Amiram Catz, Neer Giladi

 

Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital, Ra'anana; Movement Disorder Unit, Tel Aviv Medical Center; and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

 

Therapeutic injection of botulin toxin is well-recognized for reducing tonus in local dystonia. However, its efficacy in reducing spasticity in spinal cord injuries is still unproven. 4 men and 1 woman (mean age 39 years, range 20-56) with spinal cord injury and debilitating spasticity, and no response to standard treatment for spasticity received injections of botulin, 200-300 U, into 4-8 points in their legs to block muscle-nerve synapses.

In all 5 tonus was reduced in the area of the block, while in some it was also reduced in more distal muscles. In 1 there was reduced tonus in both the injected and contralateral leg. The therapeutic effect on tonus persisted for 3 months. In spite of objective improvement in tonus in all 5, only 3 felt subjective improvement, but in none was there improvement on standard functional scaling.

We found injection of botulin toxin effective in reducing tonus in the spinal cord-injured, and to some extent in improving subjective feeling of well-being in some of them. Obective measurement might show functional improvement after larger doses of toxin injected into more muscles. This might be necessary because the muscle mass of the legs is large and the intensity of involuntary contraction is especially high in these patients.

רמי אבירם, אלכסנדר שטרייזנט, יורם בייט ומשה פייגין

Emergency Cesarean Section in a Comatose Parturient after Head Trauma 


R. Aviram, A. Shtraizent, Yoram Beyth, M. Fejgin

 

Ultrasound Division and High Risk Unit, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meir Hospital, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba (Affiliated with the Sackler School of Medicine) and Neurosurgery Dept.,Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva)

 

Coma in pregnancy and labor is a rare and complicated situation. One of the causes is severe head trauma, which requires neurosurgical consultation and possibly urgent transfer to a neurosurgical unit. This should follow stabilization, confirmation of fetal viability, and cesarian section when indicated.

A 38-year-old primigravida at term and in labor, with severe head injury from a vehicular accident is reported. Emergency cesarean section was performed for severe fetal distress during resuscitation. Fetal distress in a comatose parturient with severe head injury may require a short delay in referral to a tertiary trauma center to allow for an emergency cesarean section.

אמנון הדר, גרשון הולצברג ומשה מזור

Anaphylactic Shock after Diclofenac Sodium 


Amnon Hadar, Gershon Holcberg, Moshe Mazor

 

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba

 

Anaphylaxis due to diclofenac sodium (Voltaren) is rare. We describe a 39-year-old woman who received a suppository of diclofenac for analgesia 6-hours after cesarean section. She developed severe angioedema and profound hemodynamic shock 10 minutes after the diclofenac, to which she had been exposed in the past without any side-effects. There are few reports of such an acute, life-threatening, multisystem reaction to this drug in the English literature.

15 בפברואר
שמעון קורץ, מרדכי גולדנפלד ושלמה מלמד

Early Detection of Glaucoma by a Mobile Unit

 

S. Kurtz, M. Goldenfeld, S. Melamed

 

Sam Rothberg Glaucoma Center, Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer

 

Glaucoma, the third leading cause of blindness in the western world, is characterized by painless, gradual loss of visual fields which may lead to severe visual impairment or even blindness. In 4 years of operation of a mobile glaucoma unit for screening and early diagnosis of glaucoma, 10,037 subjects aged 18-95 years were screened (4504 women, 45%); 55% were under 50 years (Graph 1).

Ocular hypertension was diagnosed in 8.0%; primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in 0.8%, with 2/3 already under treatment, the rest newly diagnosed. Pseudo-exfoliative glaucoma was diagnosed in 0.2%; only 2 cases had closed angle glaucoma; 91% of those screened were normal (Fig. 4; age stratification, Graph 3).

POAG increased with age, from 0.2% in those under 40 years to 10% in those over 80; POAG was more common in men, but OHT was similar in both sexes (6.0% vs. 5.3%). There was no correlation between incidence of POAG and place of work except in the Sorek Nuclear Center (1.9% vs. 0.8%, p=0.11). Other conditions significantly more frequent in POAG than normals were diabetes mellitus (x 2.5), systemic hypertension (x 4), myopia (x 2) and history of intraocular surgery (x 6).

יאיר הוד, יוסף קורסיה, יובל יסעור וארנה גייר

Causes of Blindness in Israel 


Y. Hod, Y. Corcia, Y. Yassur, O. Geyer

 

Depts. of Ophthalmology, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa and Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva; Israel Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, Jerusalem; and Rehabilitation Services Administration, Services for the Blind

 

Of the world population, 38 million are blind and another 110 million are visually impaired. Even in the developed countries there are 3.5 million who are blind.

This study of blindness in Israel is based on the National Blind Registry. At the end of 1998, 15,937 were registered as blind, 0.3% of the total population; 776 (5%) of them were 18 years old or younger; 6,426 (40%) 18-65 years old; and 8,735 (55%) 65 years or older.

The leading causes of blindness in Israel are glaucoma (2,074, 13%), macular degeneration (1,954, 12%) and diabetes mellitus (1,680, 11%). Since glaucoma and diabetes, and to a lesser extent glaucoma, respond to treatment, blindness could have been avoided in most cases. National screening programs for early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases would reduce prevalence of the newly blind.

עדי רון, שמחה מיזל, מיירה שפירו-פיינברג וצבי קליין

Cortical Blindness Following Coronary Angiography 


Addie Ron, Simcha Meisel, Myra Shapiro-Feinberg,Herman O. Klein

 

Depts. of Medicine, Cardiology and Diagnostic Imaging,Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba

 

Cortical blindness has been occasionally reported as a complication after cerebral angiography, but is rare after coronary angiography. The contrast agent is believed to be responsible for the sudden development of blindness. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, it appears that the contrast agent disrupts the blood brain barrier, mostly in the occipital areas.

We report a 77-year-old man who suddenly developed transient, bilateral cortical blindness 4 hours after coronary angiography. Using contrast enhancement, the CT scan showed typical, symmetrical involvement of both occipital lobes. There were no other neurological deficits. Vision and CT findings returned to normal within 48 hours.

דב דיקר, שמואל ניטקה, איתי בר-חוה, ראול אורבייטו, ציון בן-רפאל ואריה דקל

Microlaparoscopy in Diagnostic and Operative Gynecologic Procedures 


Dov Dicker, Shmuel Nitke, Itai Bar-Hava, Raul Orvieto, Zion Ben-Rafael, Arie Dekel

 

Depts. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson and Golda Campuses, Petah Tikva; and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

 

A recent further development in laparoscopic surgery is microlaparoscoopy. The technique is identical to standard 10 mm laparoscopy except for the use of small, 2 mm scopes and trocars. We used this technique in 19 patients treated from June 1998 to February 1999.

The advantages of microlaparoscopy are: smaller incisions, less risk of damage to pelvic organs and less postoperative pain. However, the use of microlaparoscopy for operative procedures is limited to simple operations due to the limited field of vision. We urge our colleagues to consider microlaparoscopy whenever diagnostic laparoscopy is needed.

אלכסנדר לרנר, יצחק וייס, גבריאל נירנברג, דורי הרר וחיים שטיין

Management of Compound High Energy Injuries of the Limbs 


A. Lerner, I. Weisz, G. Nierenberg, D. Horer, H. Stein

 

Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery A, Rambam Medical Center, and Technion Medical Faculty, Haifa

 

We treated 49 patients with high energy injuries of the limbs between 1.1.94-31.12.97. They had sustained 61 fractures, 50 of which were open; 14 had bilateral injuries, and 3 had lost a limb. All fractures were stabilized on arrival with an A-O tubular external fixator. Soft tissue loss was covered by a combination of split skin graft and tissue flaps following repeated surgical debridement.

After 10 days, or when all soft tissue defects were covered, the cantilever external fixation frame was exchanged for a hybrid ring which provided three-dimensional stability and allowed early full weight bearing and joint mobilization. The hybrid ring frame did not interfere with the care of soft tissue injuries. Furthermore, it kept the risk of developing deep infections to a bare minimum. At follow-up after a median of 20 months, 1 patient had developed osteomyelitis but all had returned to independent function.

לי-און לוי ומשה מיכלסון

Prioritizing Suspected Diagnosis of Both Brain and Abdominalinjuries: Is it a Problem?

 

Leon Levi, Moshe Michaelson

 

Dept. of Neurosurgery and Trauma Unit, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa

 

Current guidelines for management of suspected head and abdominal injuries are based on retrospective studies like that of Wisner & al, Following a recent review in this journal by Y. Kluger & al, which was based on non-Israeli data, we decided to define the current status at our trauma center.

We compare our data of 18 months of hospital admissions for acute trauma in which head CTs were done with those of 5 articles advocating specific protocols for decisions in pre-laparotomy diagnosis.

In the 861 cumulated cases, compared with the 800 of Wisner & al, craniotomy was required in 15% vs 7% (p<0.05); laparotomy was much less frequent, 2.7% vs 12.9% (p<0.05). The chance of finding a case requiring both craniotomy and laparotomy was 1 in 300.


As the clinical condition of multiple trauma involving the head and abdomen is becoming less frequent and includes diverse situations, a comprehensive algorithm might be inaccurate. Good clinical judgment of the clinician and teamwork are therefor preferable.

הקבוצה הישראלית לרישום סתב"א

Incidence of Insulin Dependent Diabetes in Youth in Israel 


Israel IDDM Registry Study Group

 

Recent reports from different countries have shown an increasing incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM, type I diabetes). In Israel, several surveys of the incidence of IDDM have been conducted. During 1996, a national juvenile diabetes register was founded by specialists in endocrinology, and the Israel Center for Disease Control (ICDC).

This is the first report of the national incidence of IDDM in the 0-17 year age group in Israel. New cases of juvenile diabetes were reported using an anonymous form. The ICDC was responsible for data collection, control and statistical analyses.

During 1997, 162 new cases of diabetes mellitus were reported in the age group 0-17, 154 of them diagnosed as IDDM. The annual incidence in the total population of Israel in 1997 was 7.7/100,000. Age-specific incidence was 7.3/100,000 in boys and 8.1 in girls. A family history of IDDM was found in 14.3% of the cases. Incidence was higher for Jews (9.2/100,000) than Arabs (3.6/100,000). Among Jews, children whose fathers were born in Yemen had the highest incidence and those born to fathers born in Israel the lowest incidence.

IDDM incidence rates for 1997 are higher than reported in previous surveys. It will be possible to draw conclusions regarding possible trends in incidence from data to be gathered in the next few years.

א' טליאנסקי, א' קרמר ומ' נויפלד

Phenobarbital Coma for Psychogenic Status Epilepticus

 

A. Taliansky, U. Kramer, M.Y. Neufeld

 

EEG and Epilepsy Unit, Dept. of Neurology and Neuropediatric Unit, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center

 

Among patients seen for epileptic seizures, there is a subgroup of those who do not have epilepsy but suffer from psychogenic paroxysmal events which mimic epileptic seizures. The differential diagnosis between them is of the utmost importance, as incorrect diagnosis of seizures subjects the patient to incorrect management. In the case psychogenic status epilepticus, the treatment may endanger the patient.

We report 3 women, aged 20, 20 and 28 and a man aged 24 with psychogenic status epilepticus admitted to an intensive care unit and treated by induction of phenobarbital coma when other antiepileptic medication failed.

מאיר מועלם, זהבית טורוק, דני רוזין וברוריה שלמון

Sclerosing Mesenteritis: An Unusual Cause of Abdominal Pain

 

Meir Mouallem, Zehavit Turok, Danny Rosin, Bruria Shalmon

 

Depts. of Medicine E, General Surgery and Transplantation, and of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

 

Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is rare and fewer than 300 cases had been reported up to 1997. We describe a 29-year-old woman who had abdominal pain for 1 year and presented with a palpable abdominal mass. The diagnosis of SM was made only after diagnostic laparoscopy and biopsy of the peritoneum.

שבתאי ורסנו, גיורא חביון ומילה גרנקין

Smoking by an Israeli Hospital Staff, its Attitude to Smoking in Hospitals and to “Smoke-Free” Hospitals

 

Shabtai Varsano, Giora Hevion, Mila Garenkin

 

Depts. of Pulmonary Medicine, Asthma Care-Education Unit, Hospital Management Office, and Epidemiology and Medical Data Unit; Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

 

Smoking within hospitals is common in general hospitals in Israel. It has a strong negative educational impact, has a negative image and curing its ill effects help keep our hospitals busy. An anonymous questionnaire was answered by 128 members of our hospital staff (28%). Their distribution, according to occupation and sex was representative of the rest of our hospital staff.

19% of our workers are smokers, a much lower proportion than in our general adult population. The proportion was highest among maintenance (40%) and sanitary-help staff (36%). 23% of nurses and 15% of physicians were smokers. This situation is better than that among Italian or Japanese medical staff, but much worse than among North American medical staff.

75% of our workers who smoke declared that they smoke outside the room in which they work. 66% and 72% of the staff believe that hospital workers and visitors, respectively, should smoke outside hospital buildings. Only 19% of all workers do not believe that a "smoke-free hospital" is attainable. 34% believe that a "smoke-free hospital" is achievable, and 47% said that it is perhaps achievable. 86% of all the workers, and 41% of the smokers, expect the hospital director to implement an effective policy of enforcing the law limiting smoking within hospitals (and other public buildings) in Israel. 60% are willing to contribute actively to this effort.

We believe these results strongly suggest that the time is ripe for implementation of the "smoke-free hospital" in Israel. This requires a strong and effective central policy, like that in the USA. We suggest measures that the Israel Ministry of Health take measures to successfully implement this policy.

הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303